Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom

Also refers to a library staff member responsible for delivering materials from closed stacks and assigned the routine task of general stack maintenance reshelvingshelf readingetc.

Also, to call a person by name over a public address system in a large facilitya practice avoided in libraries to minimize distraction. Click here to learn more about palindromes in Wikipedia. In printinga "list of works by the same author " appearing in some books on the verso of the leaf immediately preceding the title pagewhich may include titles out of print or even issue d by other publisher s.

Also, one of a series of drawing s in a cartoon or comic strip created as a sequence of related images to be viewed from left to right. Also refers to a brief compositionespecially one prepared for presentation by the author at a conference or other professional meeting.

Conference paper s may be published in proceedings or transactions. They are index ed in PapersFirstan online database available in OCLC FirstSearch. See also : invited paper. Also refers to a form of bookbinding in which hot-melt adhesive is applied to the flat binding edge of the un sewn section s, securing them directly to a heavy paper cover cut flush. Durability depends on the capacity of the adhesive to remain flexible over time.

See also : Otabind. Prior to the midth century, nearly all paper was made from cotton and linen rag s reduced to pulp custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom placed in a vat containing a solution of water and size. Each sheet was produced by hand-dipping into the vat a wooden frame strung with a bed of metal wires, then agitating the frame to distribute the fibers evenly. The resulting mat of fiber was dried between sheets of blotting paper and pressed flat.

Manufacturers used frames with a metal device embedded in the cross-wires to produce a distinctive watermark in each sheet.

Click here to view illustration s from Joseph Jerome de la Lande's Art de Faire le Papierpublished in Paris in Cary CollectionRochester Institute. Ina Frenchman custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Nicolas Louis Robert invented a machine that manufactured a continuous roll of paper, subsequently developed and perfected in England in the Fourdrinier machine.

Forty years later, a technique for making paper from wood pulp was developed in Nova Scotia. Despite these advances, the four basic steps of papermaking remain the same: 1 preparation of the fiber, 2 distribution of the resulting stock in a thin layer across a part of the machine called the web3 removal of moisture by various means, and 4 finish ing the surface to give it the desired qualities. Williams Paper Museum at Georgia Tech maintains a Web site devoted to the history of papermaking.

See also : calendercoated paperdandy rolland deckle edges. In archives and special collectionsa collection of personal and family document s, as distinct from formal recordswhich may include correspondencediariesnotes, etc. Personal papers are often donated custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom sold custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom a library by the author or a member of the family after the author's death.

In the United Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, the more info of most 20th-century presidents are archived in special presidential libraries located custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom or near the president's place of birth or residence prior to election.

The Library of Congress provides online exhibit s of the The Thomas Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Papers and The Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Douglass Papers. See also The Papers of John Jaycourtesy of the Columbia University Libraries. Smith College Libraries host Across the Generations: Exploring U.

History through Family Papers. When received, papers are sometimes in need of conservation see The Custis Family Papers: Preserving an American Treasurecourtesy of the Virginia Historical Society. Also refers to an individual's official document s birth certificateidentity card, passport, etc. Because papyrus is fragile and does not withstand damp conditions, very little survives of the magnificent libraries of Antiquity. The term also refers to manuscript s written on papyrus, mainly in the form of scroll s.

Papyrology is the study of ancient papyrus text s. Click here to see the Egyptian Book of the Dead written on a papyrus scroll from the 15th century B. The Duke Papyrus Archive provides an online exhibition of papyrus manuscripts, many of which survive only in fragment s. The University of Michigan also owns a large Papyrus Collection searchable via APIS Advanced Papyrological Information System. Although costly to produce, parchment was more durable than papyrus, which it eventually replaced.

During the Middle Ages it was used to make the leaves of manuscript book s, one of the reasons book s of that period are so thick. Because parchment is naturally oily, it had to be rubbed with an abrasive substance called pounce to prepare it for writing. It is also darker and smoother on the hair side than on the flesh side, so the quire s of medieval manuscript s were assembled with hair side facing hair side and flesh side facing flesh side to make the opening s in a book uniform in color and texture.

Tiny specks on the hair side are traces of custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom follicles. The tendency of parchment to cockle with changes in temperature and humidityand of the grain side to curl in upon itself under dry conditions the outer side of animal skin being less elastic than the flesh sidewas addressed by binding the text block in heavy wooden board s fitted with strap s, tiesor clasp s to keep the volume tightly closed when not in use.

To learn more about parchment, see the Medieval Manuscript Manual. Click here to see a 16th-century laced parchment bindingcourtesy of the Princeton University Library. The term also refers to a document written or printed on parchment, such as a map or diploma. Compare with square bracket. In music, one of the voices or instruments for which an ensemble work is composed. Also, a written or printed copy of the notation in which the music for a voice or instrument is popular homework ghostwriters websites for use in performanceindicated as part in the physical description area of the bibliographic record AACR2.

In the full custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom of an ensemble work, each part appears on a separate stave. See also : condensed score and part book. Also refers to all the physical components of a bound volumeincluding the text blockendpaper s, spineboard s or caseheadband or headcap custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, squareshinge s and joint s, etc.

Click here to see diagram s of the physical parts of a book bound in hardcover. Also, a person who helps sponsor the creation, copy ing, or printing of an original work. In medieval Europe, the patron who commissioned a manuscript was sometimes depicted in a presentation miniature or other illustration in the work. See Simon de Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom kneeling in prayer in his Book of Hours Getty MuseumMS 7 and James IV of Scotland using his prayer book Getty Museum.

It was not unusual for a sponsored work to be formally dedicated to the benefactor, in gratitude and hope of further financial assistance. In a more general sense, any person or group that encourages or supports an activity, project, or institution such as a library, especially by providing funds or other material resources. Also, a service that allows members of a television audience to purchase the right to view specific programming provided by the broadcast er at the same time as other viewers who request the same contentas distinct from video on demand VOD systems which check this out users to view recorded content in real time or download ed for viewing at any time.

Feature film s, concerts, sporting events, and pornographic movies are often delivered on a pay-per-view basis. Also refers to a method of performance evaluation in which the quality of a worker's job performance is assessed by the employee's peers within the organization, usually as part of a formal review process resulting in a recommendation to management. Because ink flows best from a quill pen when it is held perpendicular to the pagemedieval scribe s propped up their writing material at an custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom and controlled the pen with the whole hand, rather than the esl essay writer websites united kingdom. Quills are dip pens, so the inkpot or inkhorn had to be kept close at hand.

Pen trials to test a newly trimmed nib were made on a discarded scrap of vellum before work commenced. Illustration s in medieval manuscript s of scribes at work reveal that copy ing was a two-handed activity see this example.

The pen was held in one hand and a knife in the other to hold down the springy surface of the parchment and erase mistakes quickly. To learn more about the use of quill pens in manuscript production, see the Medieval Manuscript Manual.

Dip fountain pens consisting of a steel nib mounted in a wooden holder came into use in the late 18th century. Although models with reservoirs appeared in the s, the modern fountain pen did not become widespread until the late 19th century. See also : penwork initial. In library catalogingthe period of a work is indicated by adding a chronological subdivision to the class or subject heading. Nor are newspaper s formally classified as periodicals--although many libraries store newspapers with magazines and journals, separate values are assigned for periodicals and newspapers in the field of the MARC record to indicate type of serial.

Also, the statement in AACR2 that serials include periodicals, newspapers, annual s, proceeding s, and numbered monographic series implies that newspapers are not considered periodicals. Periodicals are published by scholarly societies, university press es, trade and professional associations, government agenciescommercial publisher s, and nonprofit organizations. The most comprehensive directory of periodicals is Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory published annual ly by ProQuestavailable in the reference section of libraries in the United States.

Content is indexed in finding tool s called periodical index es and abstracting service s, usually by subject and author. Also, the production of a book in a style resembling that of an earlier period, although the text may have been written by a contemporary authorusually conceived by the publisher as a promotion al device.

For work s not limited to a specific languageperiod notation is taken from Table 1 of the auxiliary schedule s. Under normal use and storage conditions in libraries and archives, paper meeting the ANSI standard should last for several hundred years without significant deterioration.

In periodical publications, the symbol is printed on the masthead or in the copyright area. Synonymous with durable paper. Also refers to a photographic copy of an existing photograph, as opposed to a duplicate print made from the same negative. The Ransom CenterUniversity of Texas at Austin provides an online exhibition on The First Photograph. Click here to see a selection of photographically illustrated book s of the 19th century British Library.

Compare with motion picture. See also : aerial photographcabinet cardcustom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdomcrystoleum photographfisheye photographmacrophotographmicrophotographphotographic essayphotomapphotomontagephotomosaicPolaroidpublicity photographcustom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdomstilland stock photograph.

In librariesphotographs are collected as original print s and as reproduction s. They are also published as illustrations in book s and periodical custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom. Still photographs are also digitized for use as illustrations in document s available online and on CD-ROM. The Library of Congress provides information about The Care, Handling, and Storage of Photographs.

Click custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom to learn about the Jerwood Photography Project at the British Library. See also : American Society of Picture Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom and photo-safe. In motion picture s, a similar effect is achieved in time, rather than space, by projecting a selection of images in such rapid succession that in the mind of the viewer they are associated in custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom way that gives them meaning not apparent when viewed separately or at a slower pace.

The term is also used by commercial outlets that specialize in providing canada services problem solving ghostwriter images see the Mary Evans Picture Library in London. In archivesthe most basic unit of description and arrangement that can be retrieved from a repository as a separate and distinct entity under its own reference, regardless of format.

If a file of document s is described as a single unit, a document within that file custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom not be considered a piece; http://dvdbestonline.co/custom-literature-review-ghostwriters-service-for-masters.php, a single document once part of a file, such as a letter or memorandummight be a piece, provided the file as a whole is not made a unit of description.

Also refers to a collection of written nautical directions assembled to meet custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom requirements of navigation in specific coastal or intracoastal waters, containing information that is difficult to convey on nautical chart s. Click here to browse current and historical coast pilots available online from NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. See also : portolan.

The use of the Internet http://dvdbestonline.co/professional-university-essay-ghostwriter-service-for-school.php appropriate the ideas or expressions of another http://dvdbestonline.co/pay-to-do-leadership-resume.php been dubbed cyberplagiarism.

The cut-and-paste capability of most word processing and Web browser software has facilitated plagiarism. Submission of an essay or term paper purchased prewritten from an online paper mill is one of the most flagrant forms of plagiarism. Astute instructors keep abreast of the latest techniques for detecting this and other forms of for essay ghostwriting esl college admission service. For more informationcustom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Sharon Stoerger's Web site Plagiarism.

Because they are not integral to the gathering, plates are excluded from the pagination ; however, they are usually numbered in roman or arabic numeral s and listed in order of appearance in a separate part of the front matter.

In the bibliographic record created to represent an item in the library catalogthe number of leaves or pages of plates is indicated in the physical description areafollowing extent of text.

See also : color platedouble platemonochrome plateand plate number. Originally, a flat piece of wood or a sheet of metal used to print, embossor engrave a design, illustrationor image on papervellumor some other printing surface. In modern printing, photomechanical plates are used to print both text and illustrations.

See also : plate mark. In photograph y, a rigid, comparatively thick support for the layer of photosensitive material emulsion bearing the image. Glass is used for its flatness and where dimensional stability is essential.

In the tintypea thin metal sheet, usually of iron, was used to support the emulsion. Also, a designation assigned to an item of music by the publisherconsisting of an abbreviationinitials, or words identifying the publisher, sometimes followed by a number corresponding to the number of pages or plates, usually printed at the foot of each page and sometimes on the title page AACR2.

In music catalogingplate number is recorded in the custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom area of the bibliographic description example : Pl. Compare with publisher's number. In publishingthe emphasis or attention given custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom news story or article by check this out of its position in the publication front or backplacement on the page top or bottomor typographical treatment played up or played down.

Also, to operate any device designed to receive broadcast signals radio or television or reproduce sound recorded on any medium phonograph recordaudiotapecompact discvideotapeetc. See also : playback. In the book tradea disused slang term for a new book that does not sell. Poet laureates were originally appointed for life as officers of the royal household in England, where they were expected to compose poems for state occasions, but the post is now conferred mainly as a mark of distinction.

In the United States, the Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry is appointed annually by the Librarian of Congress and receives a stipend. Wikipedia provides a list of British poet laureates.

In historical bibliography and antiquarian book tradea specific characteristic or peculiarity of printing or binding usually a minor defect or error by which copies of a first edition can be distinguished or priority of issue established within an edition that has undergone multiple printing s.

See also : fingerprint. In cartographya zero-dimensional abstraction represented by a single x, y or x, y, z coordinateused on a map or chart to represent a geographic feature too small to be displayed as a line or area, for example, the location of a building on a map of a city or of a city on a small-scale map of a state or country. Point symbol s are also used to represent abstract features that lack areal extent, for example, the epicenter of an earthquake.

Kodak began selling safety film made with a polyester base in the mids. Click here is the toughest film base in use today and more chemically stable than acetate film.

Because of its tensile strength, it can be made thinner than most other motion picture stock and is less susceptible to damage caused by careless handling. Most new 35mm release print s shown in American cinema theaters are made on polyester base because it outlasts other types of film; however, currently available film cement s cannot be used on polyester-- splice s must be made with tape or by an ultrasonic process.

In full-text bibliographic database s, a "native PDF" file is received in a digital format from the publisherreproducing the appearance of the original text and images with a high degree of clarity. A "scanned PDF" file is created by running a print copy of the text through a high-quality scanner. The result is then examined closely for legibility.

In publishinga single- or multivolume work containing plate s with little or no textusually executed by an artist and devoted to a central theme, for example, George Catlin's North American Indian Portfolioa collection of 25 color plate s first published incustom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom artistic success but financial failure for the artist. In art, a collection of the original works of an artist, usually selected to illustrate range of talent.

Also used in reference to the entire body of an artist's work. In business, a comprehensive list of all the securities stocks, bonds, etc. Publicly held corporations are required by law to disclose such holdings.

A self-portrait is a representational likeness of a person made by its subjectwho is usually an artist or photographer. Click here to see a 16th-century self- portrait miniature painted by the Bruges illuminator Simon Bening Metropolitan Museum of Art. In publishingan illustrationleafor book of a height approximately 25 percent greater than erkennt write popular business plan dieser widththe norm in printed publication s.

Synonymous in this sense with long way. See also : narrow and square. Compare in this sense with landscape. Also refers to a likeness of small size painted by a miniaturist on parchment or vellum to be mounted in a frame see this example painted by the 16th-century master Simon Beningcourtesy of the Getty Museum.

Also refers to the transfer of an image by piercing the edges of an exemplar with tiny holes to enable it to be used as a stencilmore common in bestiaries than in other medieval text s because custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom animal motifs used by illuminators to decorate initial letter s and border s were not easy to copy freehand.

Click here to see a zoomorphic image in the Aberdeen Bestiary that has been pricked for pouncing University of Aberdeen LibraryMS The term is sometimes used in the title of a book-length treatment of a subject to indicate that the author's comments are introductory or preliminary example : A Preface to Eighteenth Century Poetry [] by James Sutherland. Also refers to an advertising insert printed by a manufacturer to be included in a periodical, sometimes designed to accommodate local copysuch as the names and addresses of sales outlets located in the area of circulation.

Single sheet s may be encapsulated or laminated for protection. Materials printed on acid paper may be deacidified if their value warrants the expense; however, when the original has deteriorated beyond the point of salvation, reformat ting may be necessary. Publication s with soiled or foxed leaves are sometimes washed in rebinding. Materials infected with mildew or mold may require fumigation. Insects and larvae can be eliminated by freezing the infested item.

Rare book s and manuscript s are usually stored in a custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom room, with temperature and humidity strictly controlled. A broader term than conservationpreservation includes managerial and financial considerations, including storage and accommodation provisions, staffing, and policy decisions, as well as the techniques and methods of maintaining materials in optimal condition.

Click here to learn more about preservation at the Library of Congress and here to read the Preservation Policy of the American Library Association. Preservation Leaflets are available online from the Northeast Document Conservation Center NEDCCwhich also offers Preservation An Internet Course on Paper Preservation. The Preservation Advisory Centre of the British Library also provides online booklets on a variety of preservation topic s. See also Bach to Baseball Cardsan online exhibition of years of creative preservation at the Library of Congress.

See also : digital preservationfilm preservationPreservation and Reformatting Sectionand Regional Alliance for Preservation. Also used in the same sense as " publisher " example : Oxford University Pressto refer to the publishing industry in general as in popular pressand as a shortened form of the term printing press.

Also refers to the initial response of reviewer s to a new book or creative workwhich may have an effect on public demand in bookstore s, librariestheaters, etc. Press can be "bad" panned"good" well-receivedor "excellent" laudatory. Historically, the term was also used for a large wooden cupboard containing shelves for storing book s and manuscript s, clothing and linens, etc. Early books were placed flat on the shelves, often with the title handwritten on the tail or fore-edge.

As a standard economic indicator of the market dynamics of a particular type of publicationindependent of context librarypublishermethod of sale, etc. Library Journal publishes an annual periodical price survey in its April 15 issueand the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services ALCTS of the American Library Association ALA publishes the annual U. Serial Services Price Index. Price indexes for library materials are also available in Library and Book Trade Almanaca reference serial published by Information Today, Inc.

The term is also used for small holes made around the outline of a design in an exemplar to allow it to be transferred to another surface by a stencil technique called pouncing. Click here to see an example in the Aberdeen Bestiary University of AberdeenMS In a more general sense, any book that gives the first principles of a subject or basic instruction for beginners example : The Copyright Primer for Librarians and Educators [] by Janis H.

Also refers to a copy of a picture mounted or unmounted produced by any printing process, usually in multiple impression s. An art print is an original scholarship best for ca hire essay ghostwriterswoodcutetchingengravinglithographor photograph transferred to the medium of print from a plate cut by the artist. Prints made from the same plate may vary in quality.

For more about prints, see What Is a Print? Museum of Modern Art and The Printed Image in Europe: History and Techniquescourtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Artists who source in printmaking are called printmakers examples : Albrecht Dürer and William Hogarth.

For a selection of Japanese woodblock prints ukiyo-esee the Japanaese Print Gallery. See also : aquatintcommemorative printdrypointmezzotintmonotypenature printpainted printand tinsel print. In photography, a copy of a photograph made on paper from a negative. In cinematographya copy on film of a motion picture. See also : answer printcomposite custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdomexhibition printpaper printrelease printand scratch print.

Also refers to a mechanical or electronic device that produces printed copies of a document, including computer peripherals designed to produce output in hard copy.

The most common types are laser printer s, dot-matrix printers, and ink-jet printers. Click here and here to learn more about how computer printers work, courtesy of HowStuffWorks.

The convention was adopted by publisher s after World War II see this examplecourtesy of Wikipedia. In some cases, the numbers alternate from left to right example : 2 4 6 8 10 9 7 5 3 1. If "1" is present, then the book is the first printing of the edition. In the second printing, the "1" is removed to make the lowest number "2". Sometimes, the key includes dates, for example, 2 3 4 70 71 72 to indicate the second printing issue d in Numbers are removed with each successive reprint on the theory that the printer is less likely to make a mistake in changing the impression number by removing the lowest number, than by introducing a new number.

Also refers to all the copies of a book or other publication printed at one time in the same press run. A copy of the first printing of the first edition of a work is usually of greater value to book collector s than a copy of a subsequent printing in comparable condition. Also refers to the art of hand- lettering made to look like printed letter s. Also, the process of making an image usually positive from photograph ic film or duplicating motion picture film, done in the laboratory using a machine called a printer.

The result is one or more print s. See also : contact printing definition for writers top college essay website, optical printingand wet gate printing. In handwriting, a style in which the individual character s are written separately from each other; a disjoined hand see this example in which printing is compared with cursive. The term is also used in the title s of journal s published by long-established scholarly societies, for example, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PNASand also for the records of certain courts of custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom see The Proceedings of the Old Bailey.

Also, a general term for all the laboratory procedures involved in developing, fixing, and printing the latent image in exposed film. In still photograph y, the term developing is used, but for motion picture film, processing is the preferred term. Also, the organization responsible for creating the content of a machine-readable data file such as a bibliographic databaseusually indicated on the welcome screennot necessarily the same as the custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom that markets and provides access to the product.

Also, the degree to which the activities of an individual, organization, or institution are known in its community. Libraries typically emerge from their low-profile role in society when faced with the necessity of persuading their constituency to approve a funding measure. Library policy can also become high-profile when a challenge sparks a conflict over censorship or privacy. Vertical scale may be exaggerated to provide contrast.

Often used synonymously with cross section. Click here to see a geologic profile of the Black Hills, South Dakota, and here to see an example for the Gale Crater Mound on Mars NASA. A horizon profile depicts the land as a mariner would see it from a seaward approach, to aid in identifying suitable landfall click here to see 18th-century examples, courtesy of the Osher Map LibraryUniversity of Southern Maine.

Also refers to a future need or condition that can be forecast from a known set of datafor example, the amount of expansion space needed in the stacks of a librarybased on average annual collection growth. Also refers to the activity of marketing a product, service, or institution to people in a position to buy, use, or support it. National Children's Book Week is an example of an activity intended to promote the use of libraries in the United States.

See also : uncorrected proof. In printmaking, an impression taken from a custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, block, or stone at any stage in the process, which is not considered part of the editionfor example, an artist's proof or trial proof. See also : counterproof. In photography, a print made as a quick custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom of a negative or to allow the client to make a choice, as in the case of a studio portrait.

See also : progressive proofsproof printand scatter proof. In electronic communicationsa set of formal convention s for the exchange of data between workstation s connected to a computer networkincluding the rules governing data format and control of inputtransmission, and output.

The six main protocols used in Internet address es URL s are:. Also refers to a signed document recording points of agreement reached at a diplomatic conference between two or more nations, preliminary just click for source negotiating a formal convention or treatyand to the code of ceremonial etiquette observed by government officials in affairs of state.

By extension, any code of conventional conduct or procedure. In archivesthe succession of custodian s responsible for creating, receiving, or accumulating a collection of records or personal papers.

Authentication of archival materials requires that provenance be determined with certainty. The related principle of respect des fonds requires that records known to have originated from a given source be documented and retained separately from those of other agencies or persons and in their original order and organizational context, whenever possible.

If proximity searching is available in a specific database, instructions concerning its use can usually be found in the help screen s. See also : public relations and public service announcement.

In the United States, the trade association of the publishing industry is the Association of American Publishers AAP.

An international Directory of Publishers and Vendors is available online from AcqWeba Website created and maintained especially for acquisitions and collection development librarian s. One of the volume s of Books in Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom BIP is a print directory of U. See also : commercial publisherforeign subsidiaryindependent publishermetapublishermicropublishermuseum publisherpopular pressprivate presssmall presssub-publishertrade publisheruniversity pressand vanity publisher.

According to The Bookman's Glossary Bowker,the term is also used in publishing to refer to a magazine printed on inexpensive, poor-quality paper manufactured from groundwood pulp newsprint.

See also : pulp fiction. Try our Search Tips. Current Events and Issues. Geography and World Cultures. Politics, Law, and Government. Librarianship: Philosophy, Values, and Issues. Organization of Information and Knowledge Management.

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Pop Goes the Decade. Racism in American Institutions. Tech Tools for Learning. The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations. The Historian's Annotated Classics. The Praeger Singer-Songwriter Collection. The Psychology of Everyday Life. The Story of a Drug. Voices of an Era. See : P icture A rchive C ouncil of A merica. A book produced wholly or in part by a freelancer or agency in the business of assembling books for publication.

The extent of the packager 's role is determined by the agreement with the publisherwhich may include writing, editingdesigning, illustratingprintingand even binding the final product.

Portions of the production process custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom be subcontracted out to specialist s. Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom with managed book. An agreement or offer covering more than one item at the same time, or making acceptance of one item contingent on acceptance of another. Network technology that breaks a message in digital format into tiny parcels of no more than character s, each with the same destination addressthen routes them separately as transmission circuits help me write homework available.

When the packets reach their destination, they are checked to ensure that no data was lost in transmission, then reassembled in original sequence. Packet switching enables the transmission capability of a computer network to be verwenden best problem solving ghostwriters sites uk werden with maximum speed and efficiency, reducing costs and enhancing productivity.

The Internet click the following article packet switching. See : shipping list. A book with one or more layers of compressible material, such as cotton batting, added to the surface of the board s before the outer covering is applied, to make the binding soft to the touch see this example.

The style was used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries on album s, diariesvolume s of poetryetc. A flexible lightweight wrapper with a self- adhesive flap, designed to protect item s such as book s during shipment. Usually made of heavy-duty kraft paper or strong plastic, lined with a thick layer of soft fiber or air bubbles trapped in plastic film, padded envelopes best case study editing services nyc used custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom in interlibrary loan.

Available from library and office supplier s in various sizes, they are reusable if opened carefully. Synonymous with jiffy bag and padded mailer. Unnecessary verbiage added to a speech or written document to increase its length. One side of a leaf in a manuscriptbookperiodicalor other printed publicationnumber ed or unnumbered.

The right-hand page in an opening is the rectothe left-hand page the verso. See also : folio and jump page. Also, a shortened form of the term Web page. Also, to call a person by name over a public address system in a large facilitya practice avoided in libraries to minimize distraction.

The point in a text at which one page ends and the next page begins, indicated in most word processing software by a horizontal broken line across the screen. See also : orphan and widow. A number assigned in sequence to a page in a manuscriptbookpamphletperiodicaletc. Page numbers are written or printed in the head or tail marginusually centered or in the outer corner.

Front matter is usually paginated in lowercase roman numeral s, text and back matter in consecutive arabic numeral s. Blank pages are left unnumbered.

See also : blind page. A feature of most word processing software that allows the format of a page of text to be viewed on the screen exactly as it will appear when printed. See also : WYSIWYG. In printingan impression made from type that custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom been made up into page s after the galley proof s have been inspected and any errors corrected, ready for final checking before the publication goes to pressthe author 's last opportunity to make minor changes.

In perfect bindinga test of the strength of the adhesive used to attach the leaves to the spine of the book blockin which the open book is lifted by the fore-edge of a single leaf.

The practice of marking the page s of a written or printed document with consecutive number s to indicate their sequence. Front matter is usually numbered in lowercase roman numeral s, text and custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom matter in arabic numeral s.

Rare in manuscript s and documents printed prior to A. The recto traditionally bears an odd page number and the verso an even number. See also : blind pagecontinuous paginationduplicate pagingjournal paginationmagazine paginationrepaginatedseparately paginatedand unpaginated. See : public address system. A style of binding in which a design or picture this web page painted directly on one or both cover s of a book.

Because of its light color and smooth surface, vellum was the best covering material for this type of decoration before paper came into widespread use. To see examples, try a search on the keywords "painted and vellum" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings.

Click here to see a 16th-century calf binding by Christopher Plantin on which some of the tooled elements are painted in white, gray, black, green, and red Koninklijke Bibliotheek. A monochromatic engravingetchingor woodcut to which color is applied after the impression is taken, popular in Europe during the Renaissance and Baroque periods to Color was added by a variety of techniques stencilfreehandor a combination of bothsometimes by the printmaker but more often by a painter or trained colorist, or by an artisan in the case of mass-produced print s.

Some colorists signed their work. Examples can be seen in the online exhibition Painted Prints: The Revelation of Color Baltimore Museum of Art. A work of art created by applying paint or pigment usually article source means of a brush, blade, or sponge to a supporting surface of wood, clay, bone, ivory, glass, stone, plaster, parchmentpaperor fabric usually canvas or silk.

The earliest paintings were made over 30, years ago on the stone walls of caves in southern France and northern Spain by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who used brushes and their own breath to apply natural pigments see this example from Altamira Cave in Spain. See also : miniature. From the Greek palaios "ancient" and graphien "writing". The study of early forms of writing, such as the ancient inscription s carved on monuments and the various script s used in classical and medieval manuscript s.

A discipline that began with the 15th-century humanists, paleography includes the decipherment of ancient text s and the determination from external characteristics of date and place of origin. Also refers to the study of the origins of the alphabet s and letterform s used in writing the world's language s, including the Latin alphabet.

Click custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom to learn more about the history of writing. The National Archives UK provides Palaeography: Reading Old Handwriting, A Practical Online Tutorial. British spelling is palaeography.

See also : diplomatics and Rosetta Stone. From the Greek palimpsestosmeaning "scraped again. Prior to the introduction of paperwriting material was often reused because it was expensive to produce and usually in short supply. Papyrus could be washed lavagebut parchment and vellum had to be scraped with pumice or some other abrasive substance.

A double palimpsest is one that has been erased twice. The new text was often written perpendicular to the former, to reduce, if not eliminate, visual confusion. The study of palimpsests has enabled codicologist s to recover portions of texts and, in some cases, entire work s that would otherwise have been lost. The Walters Art Museum provides a Web site on The Archimedes Palimpsest. A word, phrasenumber, or other sequence of units that reads the same in either direction, for examples, the word "radar" or the sentence "Too far, Edna, we wander afoot.

Click here to learn more about palindromes in Wikipedia. A photograph ic print made on paper sensitized to light with palladium salts, not commercially available after the s. Used as a substitute during World War I when platinum became prohibitively expensive, palladium prints are virtually click to see more to platinum print s except for a slightly warmer tone.

To see examples, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Leaves of a palm-like tree, trimmed to uniform size, flattened, and polished for use as a writing surface custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom India, Tibet, and Southeast Asia.

The text was scratched in the surface, custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom rubbed with dark pigment to make the character s more visible. Click here to see a manuscript written on palm leaves Cornell University Library and here to see an example in ivory covers State Library of South Australia. See also : bark cloth and olla. See : personal digital assistant.

A non serial publication consisting of at least 5 but no more than 48 page s exclusive of cover s, stapled or sewn but not boundusually enclosed in covers of the same paper as the text or a slightly heavier grade. Pamphlets were first published in England to disseminate the polemic al writings of 16th-century reformers but are now used mainly for material too ephemeral or too brief to 10, words to be printed in book this web page. Click here to see a pamphlet guide for travelers to Canada and America via the Canadian Pacific steamship in the early 20th century Royal Library of Denmark.

The University of Toronto Libraries provide a digitized collection of pre Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Pamphlets and Broadsides. See also : pamphlet binding and pamphlet file. A self-cover or paper publisher's binding in which the leaves of a periodical or pamphlet are wire-stitched or stapled, rather than sewn or glue d.

Also refers to the rebinding of a pamphlet or its enclosure in a specially-made outer bindingusually for purposes of preservation see this examplecourtesy of the Special Collections LibraryUniversity of Kentucky. A rigid cardboard, plastic, or metal box or frame designed for storing, in an upright position, items such as brochures s, report s, loose issue s of periodical s, and other materials unbound or bound in paper cover susually with a blank space on the front for a label listing the contents.

Click here to see a worn example containing materials in deteriorated condition Harvard University Library. A manuscript of the complete text of the Bible Old and New Testaments in a single large volumeused in early monastic houses for reference and for reading aloud from a lectern. A prime example is the Northumbrian Codex Amiatinus of the late 7th century, now in the Laurentian Library in Florence, Italy.

Panel stamps custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom large tools cast not engraved incorporating an entire design rather than a repeatable motif. On a large book, several panels might be used to decorate the entire area.

Marks, panels were used in Antwerp as early as the 13th century, sometimes based on woodcut s The British Library Guide to BookbindingUniversity of Toronto Press, Click here to view a 16th-century example bearing a single blind -stamped panel Special CollectionsGlasgow University Library, BD2-h. To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "panel" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. Also refers to a similar design stamped on the spine of a book, often between raised bands on the spine of a hand-bound volume.

In printing esl critical analysis essay ghostwriter websites ca, a "list of works by the same author " appearing in some books on the verso of the leaf immediately preceding the title pagewhich may include titles out of print or even issue d by other publisher s.

Also, one of a series of drawing s in a cartoon or comic strip created as a sequence of related images to be viewed from left to right. The spine of a hand-bound book on which the space between two or more of the bands has been enclosed in decorative tooling or panel -stamped with a similar design, in blind or gilt see this example. A job interview in which professional for for essay mba hire ghostwriter candidate is questioned by two or more interviewers in the same session.

The interviewers may agree in advance on a scripted list of questions custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom take turns asking them. Also refers to a job interview in which two or more candidates are interviewed at the same time in each other's company by one or more interviewers, a more competitive process than an individual interview.

For more on the latter method, see "Are Panel Interviews the Way to Go? The Pros and Cons of Simultaneous Interviewing" by Catherine A. In cartographya title printed on a sheet map in a position that appears on the outside or "front" when the sheet is folded. On some map s, additional information is given on the custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, such as name of publisherpublication datecopyright noticeetc.

Road map s often include illustration or graphic design on the panel. Examples can be seen in The American Wayan online exhibition of road maps provided by the Osher Map Library at the University of Southern Maine. Strictly speaking, a non photograph ic perspective representation of the surface of the earth or of another celestial professional for hire gb in which detail, not drawn to scaleis shown as if projected on a vertical plane or onto a cylinder vertically centered on the point of observation, creating a visible horizon, often used to depict cities, towns, and popular recreational areas mountain ranges, canyon custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, etc.

Important feature s are sometimes labeled along the top or bottom margin. Oblique projections are often included in this category see bird's-eye view.

Panoramas have characteristics of both map s and picture s. Click here to see a panorama of the Grand Canyoncourtesy of the Library of Congress. The viewer can zoom in on this Panorama of the Rhine Valleycourtesy of the National Library of Australia. The Geography and Map Reading Room of the Library of Congress provides an online exhibition of Panoramic Maps, Click here to see photograph ic examples Special CollectionsGlasgow University Library.

Synonymous with perspective map. See also : cyclorama. A photographusually a landscapetaken custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom a camera or camera attachment designed to capture an exceptionally wide field of view, the resulting print having a ratio of width to height of or greater see this color example.

The first panoramic camera, developed in by Joseph Puchberger of Retz, Austria, used curved daguerreotype plate s and an 8-inch focal length lens to capture a degree image.

Click here to see examples at the Library Congress and here to read a timeline of the development of the panoramic camera, courtesy of Bill McBride. A device, first constructed infor producing an identical, reduced, or enlarged copy of a line workin which a series of mechanical arms on pivots move a second stylus as the operator traces the lines of the original see this example and click here to see the action animated, courtesy of Wikipedia. A flat fibrous writing or printing surface made by breaking down vegetable fiber, such as wood or raginto pulp to which a filler is added in water suspension.

As the water is drained away on a wire screen, the moist fibers bond with each other at points of contact, forming a homogeneous, felted mat that stiffens as it dries.

Paper article source graded by content and intended use and by such properties as color, brightness, opacityfinishstrength, density, weightlearn more here chemical stability.

It can be coated or uncoatedsized or unsized, handmade or machine-made. The acid content of the paper used in library materials is an issue in preservation. For more information about paper, please see the entry by Derek Priest in the International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science Routledge, Compare with papyrus and parchment.

See also : acid-free paperacid paperbible paperbook paperbuffered papercover paperespartofoolscapkraft paperlaid papermanilanewsprintonionskinpapermakingpermanent paperwood-free paperand wove paper. See also : invited paper. A book published in paper cover s, rather than in hardcoverusually adhesive bound. The modern paperback first appeared in the s when Sir Allen Lane, founder of Penguin books, published Ariel by Andre Maurois in paper cover s.

Paperback edition s are normally published after the hardcover edition of the same title and sold at a lower pricewhich has made them a staple of the retail market for fiction and nonfiction. Synonymous with paperbound and softcover. Abbreviated pbpbkand ppr. Compare with paper boards. See also : mass-market paperbackpaperback originaland trade paperback. See also : Otabind. In the used book tradethe following letter system is used popular term ghostwriters usa some bookseller s to indicate the condition of paperback book s:.

A - click new, unread condition, with no marking or stamp s on the front coveredge s, etc. B - slightly crease d along the spine ; may be marked with a name, initials, or bookstore stamp.

C - reading copy with creases on the spine and signs of wear at the corner s but with text intact. A work of fiction or nonfiction published for the first time in mass-market custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom trade paperback editionnot previously issue d in hardcover.

Fairly rigid sheet s of matted fiber manufactured in custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom same manner as paper but.

Various grades are used in the manufacture of case s for publisher's binding s. Compare with paper boards. An edition bound in board s made of pasteboard custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom ed in heavy paperusually not as durable as cloth binding.

A softcover publication not bound in stiff paper cover s, for example, a booklet or pamphlet. The category also includes temporary binding s and wrappers commonly used in the late 18th and 19th century. A graphic work consisting of an articulated or unarticulated human or animal figure drawn or printed on paper or cardboard, with multiple parts or costumes, usually issue d on a single sheet or in a bookletintended to be cut out and used as a toy see these historic examples.

The first manufactured paper dolls were issued in London in and in Boston in By the s boxed sets of paper dolls were commercially available in Europe. The first celebrity paper doll, issued in the s, was of the renowned ballerina Marie Taglioni.

Click here to learn more about the history of best curriculum vitae site dolls. A dull blade made of metal, wood, plastic, or ivory that has the appearance of a knife but is made for this web page paper by hand along a fold, as in opening a sealed envelope or separating the leaves of an uncut book see this decorative example.

An automated office or system that relies primarily on electronic mediarather than print on paperfor information transmission and recordkeeping. According custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Chinese tradition, the process of making paper from native vegetable fibers was invented in about A. The technique reached Samarkand via trade routes by A.

Papermills were in custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom in Europe at least years before the invention of printing from movable typebut the use of parchment and vellum as a writing and printing surface persisted well after the printing press became established. The papermaking industry became firmly established in Europe only in the midth century in response to the spread of printing.

The first paper mill in America was established in by William Rittenhouse near Philadelphia. Click here to view illustration s from Joseph Jerome de la Lande's Art de Faire le Papierpublished in Paris in Cary CollectionRochester Institute. See also : calendercoated paperdandy rolland deckle edges. A site on the Internet that provides prewritten essay s and term papers for students, free of charge or for a fee. See more sites charge a subscription fee and may offer custom services, usually on a per- page basis.

Customers may even be provided with advice about how to avoid being caught cheating. Saavy instructors have devised ways of detecting this form of plagiarism. Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom with essay mill. In acquisitionsan approval plan option specifying that the library is to receive the paperback edition in place of the cloth hardcover edition whenever the two are published simultaneously. The cost of rebinding the custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom is often less than the price difference between the two editions.

A contact print of a motion picture made on a roll of paper in the same way that a print is made of a still photograph. Between and over 3, custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom s were registered with the Library of Congress for U. Because federal copyright law made no provision for motion pictures at that time, film companies provided legal click to see more of their work by depositing contact prints made on rolls of paper 35mm wide, a medium that proved more lasting than the nitrate film used to create the originals.

The paper prints were later rephotographed one frame at a time onto 16mm film stock. Click here to see examples, courtesy of the American Memory Project at the Library of Congress.

A collection of more than one type of handwritten or typewritten document. Also refers to custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom group of composition s, especially those written for presentation by the author or authors at a conferencesometimes published as proceedings or transactions by the society or association sponsoring the meeting.

When received, papers are sometimes in need of conservation see The Custis Family Papers: Preserving an American Treasurecourtesy of the Virginia Historical Society. A conservation technique in which one or more paper leaves of a book or manuscript are strengthened by splitting the core of each leaf to allow a second sheet to be inserted between the two halves.

Support sheets are first applied to both sides of the leaf to be split, using a gelatin adhesive. After the adhesive has set, but while the core of the paper is still moist, the support sheets are carefully pulled apart, splitting the core into two halves, which are then dried and reassembled with a sheet learn more here Japanese paper sandwiched between them. The adhesive used to bind the Japanese paper to the two halves is soluble only in cold water.

After it dries, the support sheets are removed in a bath of very hot water, dissolving the gelatin adhesive but not the core adhesive. Paper splitting is a delicate process that should be undertaken only by an experienced conservator. Click here to see the process illustrated. A sequence of document s uncovered by an investigator, which can be used as a record of the decisions or actions of a person or organization.

Routine tasks having to do with matters that must be committed to paper report s, lettersmemorandaetc. See also : procrastination. A 19th-century molded binding made from a mixture of paper fiber, plaster of Paris, and possibly antimony, formed in a rigid frame usually made of metal.

The designs, mainly in black heavy-relief sometimes in latticework over a red or metallic underlay reflected the Victorian revival of Gothic style in the decorative arts.

Click here to view an armorial example Special Collections custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, Glasgow University Library, BD4-d. To see other examples, try a search on the keywords "papier mache" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. See also : relievo binding. A tall marsh sedge Cyperus papyrus once abundant in North Africa from which the ancient Egyptians made a material used as a writing and painting surface throughout the Mediterranean basin from the 3rd millennium B.

Although the word "paper" is derived from papyrusthe latter is technically not a paper since it is not made from pulped and processed fiber but from thin strips of the fibrous pith laid in layers at right angles to each other, pressed into sheet s, dried under pressure, and polished to a cream or white color click here to see the process illustrated.

For long document s, the sheets were pasted edge to edge in roll s, often wound around custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom stick called an umbilicus by the ancient Romans. Papyrus was less suitable for book s in codex form because it tends to delaminate when folded. Writing was usually done with a reed pen called a calamus on the inner side of the roll with the fibers running horizontally.

Trade embargoes in late Antiquity may have led to the development of parchment as a writing surface. Papyrus was abandoned with the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. A short, simple story, usually written in the form of an allegoryintended to convey an explicit moral lesson the Prodigal Son or religious principle the parables of Jesus.

Click here to learn more about parables in Wikipedia. See also : fable. A model, pattern, or example, especially one that revolutionizes the standard approach to a subject or conventional modes of thinking in a profession or field of study. In library and information scienceparadigm shifts are increasingly driven by technological innovation. Paralibrarian of the Year. An award, sponsored by DEMCOgiven annually since to a paraprofessional library staff member in recognition of outstanding library service, particularly achievements in furthering the role of paraprofessionals in librarianship.

The winner is also profiled in the March 1 issue of Library Journal. In cartographya small circle on the surface of the earth or another celestial body north or south of custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom equator and parallel to it, connecting points are of equal latitudethe 45th parallel being equidistant from the equator and the geographic pole.

Click here to see parallels illustrated. In the MARC recordthe same digits are assigned across field s in the second and third character positions of the tag to indicate data of the same type, for example, the custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom 10 for corporate name s, making the main entry corporate name field, the series statement corporate name field, the subject heading corporate name field, the added entry corporate name field, and so on.

Parallel content designation can be summarized as follows, with X in the range of :. X00 - personal name s. X10 - corporate names. X11 - meeting names. X30 - uniform title s. X40 - bibliographic titles. X50 - topic al term s. X51 - geographic name s. See : parallel texts. The publication of a work at the same time in both print and electronic format.

Compare with simultaneous publication. Different text s of the same work printed side-by-side on the same page or on facing pages of a bookfor example, two versions of the Bible or a text in translation and in the original language. Such works are published in parallel edition.

See also : duplicate paging. The title proper of an edition in a language or script other than that of the original title. The Library of Congress records all parallel titles for item s issue d in the United States. An established limit whose value affects the execution or result of a process or operation, for example, a publication date range specified by the user to limit the results of a search in an online catalog or bibliographic database.

An elaborate ornamental flourish at the end of an autograph signatureadded, especially by notaries, to protect official document s from forgery. From the Greek para "beyond" and phrasis "to tell". A re wording of the thought expressed in a previously spoken statement or written workusually to make the meaning clearer by substituting shorter, simpler words for difficult vocabulary.

Also, the use of rewording as a literary device or educational technique. See also : plagiarism. A member of the library support staffusually someone who holds at least the baccalaureate degree, trained to understand specific procedures and apply them according to pre-established rules under normal circumstances without exercising professional judgment.

Library paraprofessionals are usually assigned high-level technical support duties, for example, in copy cataloging and serials control. In smaller public library system s in the United States, branch librarian s are sometimes paraprofessionals. Click here to connect to a national directory of paraprofessional associations in the United States. Synonymous with library technician and paralibrarian. See also : Library Support Staff Interests Round Table and Paralibrarian of the Year.

The split skin of an animal sheep, goat, or calf after it has been depilated and defleshed in a bath of lime, scraped to click the following article desired thickness while still damp using a curved instrument called a lunellumthen dried under tension not tannedand polished by a tradesman known as a parchmenterfor use in bookbinding and as a writing or painting surface custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom this sample.

Click here to see a parchmenter at work Leaves of Gold. Parchment was used in Europe from about the 2nd century A. The word is derived from Charta pergamenaPergamum being the name of the popular university resume advice city on the west coast of Asia Minor where King Eumenes II founded a library to rival the great center of scholarship at Alexandria in Egypt.

Its adoption as a writing surface in the 2nd century B. Parental involvement can be active discussion of content with the child or restrictive imposition of rules and regulations. Reading aloud together and co-viewing can also be forms of parental mediation. In public librariesmonitoring a child's choice of reading or viewing material is the responsibility of the parent.

In the absence of parental guidance, it is not incumbent on the librarian to act in loco parentis, although suggestions may be offered to the child, based on age, interests, and reading level. In writing, a word, phraseor sentence is enclosed in a pair of curved brackets to indicate that it has been added for the sake of explanation or clarification but is not essential to the overall meaning of the text. The use of parentheses has declined since the 19th century, replaced by commas in modern writing style.

Also used in the singular parenthesis to refer to the parenthetical expression enclosed in brackets. Compare with square bracket. In indexinga word or phrase added in parentheses at the end of a subject heading or descriptor to:. Compare with scope note. A system of bibliographic reference in which the author 's surname and either publication editor persuasive hire for top essay canada or page number are given in the textenclosed in parentheses, with the full citation provided in a complete list of references see more the end of the text, as opposed to footnote style in which arabic numeral s or special character s are used in the text to direct the reader's attention to correspondingly numbered citations at the foot of the same page.

Synonymous with Harvard system. A separate collection of materials in a public library for which access is restricted to adult s, based on content. In Marchthe Oklahoma House passed by a vote of a bill to prohibit local funding authorities and library boards from funding public click to see more unless they "place all children and young adult materials that contain homosexual or sexually explicit subject matter in a special area" to which access is limited to adults.

The Oklahoma Library Association opposed the legislation. The Statement of Principles adopted in at the International Conference of Cataloging Principles ICCPwhich laid the foundation for the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and catalog code s used in countries other than the United States, Great Britain, and Canada. Organized by IFLA to address international standardization in library catalogingthe conference was held in Paris, France.

In computing, a bit included in a unit of digital data to detect errors in transmission, for example, the eighth bit in a byte representing an ASCII custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom. A form of satirical imitation in which the style of a serious artistic custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom literary work is ridiculed by applying the same style to an inappropriate or trivial subject or by treating the original subject in a nonsensical or irreverent manner.

One of the earliest examples is The Frogsa play by Aristophanes believed to parody work s by Aeschylus and Euripides. In a more recent example, Jane Austen parodied the gothic novel s popular in earlyth-century England in Northanger Abbey. Parody can also be used as a form of political or social criticism The Wind Done GoneAlice Randall's African American perspective on the novel Gone With the Wind by Margaret Mitchell.

For an online example of political parody, see whitehouse. Other examples can be found in Yahoo! See also : burlesque. See : P reservation a nd R eformatting S ection. One portion of a work divided by the authorpublisheror manufacturer into two or more subordinate units, usually issue d at intervals as the work is completed.

The intervals may be regular or irregulardepending on the nature of the work. In printed monograph s, a part is usually the equivalent of a volume. A part is distinguished from a fascicle by being a permanent component, rather than a temporary division of the work. As used in the physical description area of a bibliographic recordthe term refers to one of two or more bibliographic units intended to be bound together, more than one to a volume AACR2. See also : multipart itemmultipart volumeoriginal partsand serialized.

See also : condensed dpa popular university essay writing service australia geschieht and part book. A manuscript or printed publication providing only one of the vocal or instrumental part s of a musical compositionas distinct from a scorechoir bookor table book containing the complete music.

Produced in set s, usually of parts, they became the standard method of disseminating ensemble music from the late 15th to the late 17th century when scores became easier to obtain click here to see a late 16th-century example, courtesy of the Glasgow University Library. In some cases, a part book is all that remains of a lost work.

According to The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians Grove:the practice of performing music from separate parts has survived in orchestral and chamber music for which the expense of providing every performer with a score dictates economy. In library catalogingthe presence of one or more custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom books is noted in the statement of extent in the physical description area of the bibliographic record representing the item.

Also spelled partbook and part-book. A decorative band occupying one of the margin s of a medieval manuscriptcustom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom does not extend the full length of the adjacent text. A partial border can be either centered in relation to the text or some other design element on the page or positioned above or below center, or it may extend around one of the corners of the text.

Click here to see foliate examples in a 15th-century French manuscript British LibraryBurney Partial strewn border s are common in the Tongerloo Lectionary Morgan LibraryMS M. A quantity of book s offered by the publisher at lower than list price to selected bookseller s who are permitted to sell copies retail at less than the published price, even though the books are still considered net. This practice is condemned by publishers' and booksellers' association s because it gives some booksellers an unfair competitive advantage over others in the same market.

A catch title consisting of part of the title as it appears on the title page. It may be a secondary part subtitle or alternative title or the title with the less significant words omitted. The concept originated in Scandinavia custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom the s under the name cooperative design and has been used in many contexts, including libraries.

See : semantic relation. A collaboration between a library and an organization of a different type, usually on a particular project, often forming the basis for a long-standing relationship with the potential for future partnerships. The Heritage Image Partnership is an online example. The study also found that partnerships were most frequently established to attract and sustain underserved audience segments. Although the order varies slightly from one publisher to the next, the parts of a book in order of gathering are normally the half titleseries title or frontispiecetitle pageprinter's imprint and notice of copyrightdedication or epigraphtable of contentsother front matter list of contributor s, list of illustration s, list of table s or abbreviation s, chronologyetc.

Contributors may be listed in the back matterand a translator 's note is sometimes included in the front matter. Click here to see diagram s of the physical parts of a book bound in hardcover. Employment limited to a portion of normal working hours. Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom employees who work less than a certain number of hours per week or month may not be entitled to full benefits.

In academic institutions, the ratio of full-time to part-time adjunct facultyincluding librarian s, may be governed by a collective bargaining agreement. Compare with job sharing. See masters essay for hire for school : half-time.

An anonymous satire or lampoonin verse or proseespecially one ridiculing a specific person, traditionally displayed in a public place see these modern examples. A portion of a text or speech, especially when quoted. The likelihood that a http://dvdbestonline.co/esl-thesis-writer-site-london.php of an issue of a newspaper or periodical will be read by more individuals than the person who actually purchases it at a newsstand or by subscription.

Some publisher s use this as a justification for charging libraries a substantially higher subscription price than the rate paid by individual subscriber s, a practice known as differential pricing. Although pass-along is difficult to quantify, when combined with circulation it gives an approximate indication of total readership. Latin for "here and there" or "in various places," printed after a subject heading in an indexor in a footnote or endnote following the title of a work or the author 's name, to indicate that a phrase or reference to a article source or idea is scattered throughout custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom chapter or entire worktoo briefly or too abundantly for individual page references to be given.

A drama tic depiction of the Passion of Jesus Christ his trial and subsequent executiona traditional part of the celebration of Lent in some Christian denominations, including Catholicism. An official document issued by a national government at the request of one of its citizens, certifying the individual's identity and citizenship and authorizing foreign travel and right of re-entry see this early example. Today, passports include a small portrait photograph and other information about the holder.

Because a passport is stamped when the owner enters and exits a country, it provides a record of the holder's travels. Since Augustthe U. Department of State has issued only biometric passports that use contactless smart card technology see this example. A small portrait photographusually a frontal view of head and shoulders, submitted with a passport application, to document the applicant's physical features for purposes of subsequent identification see this example courtesy of the Library of Congress.

In printinga specimen sheet taken from the beginning of a press run and approved by the printerwhich the publisher is required to accept before further work may proceed. An authorized word or sequence of character s that a user must enter as input in order to log on to a computer system and gain access to desired resources.

Passwords are usually managed by the operating system or a database management system DBMS. Because system software is only capable of verifying the legitimacy of a password, not the identity of the person using it, passwords should remain confidential.

In a well-designed system, passwords must be changed periodically by the user to maintain security. By contrast, the username is usually permanent. A type of adhesive used to stick together lightweight materials such as paper and gold leafmade from the starch contained in a cereal grain such as wheat, corn, or rice, combined over heat with water and sometimes alum or resin until smooth, then allowed to cool.

Paste is used to affix label s and bookplate s because it is water soluble, making them easy to remove if necessary. However, water solubility also makes it susceptible to mold. Because it is made from a vegetable substance, paste also attracts insects that damage book s. See also : cut-and-paste. A rigid, relatively lightweight binding material made from layer upon layer of paper paste d together, or from thin layers of custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom bonded together, introduced in the 15th century to replace wooden board s in small- to medium-size book s.

Click here to see an early 19th-century example, courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In modern bookbindinga this web page grade of pasteboard called binder's board is used extensively in custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom edition s. In bookbindingthe half of a double- leaf endpaper firmly affixed to the inside of one of the board s of the case or coverover the edges of the turn-in see this example bearing a bookplate.

In medieval manuscript book s, the paste-down concealed grooves called channels cut into the inside surface of the boards to recess the sewing custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom cords.

The sheet s of parchment or vellum used for the purpose were often fragment s of disused manuscript s. Click here to see a vellum paste-down bearing inscription s in a 15th-century Old Testament Bodleian LibraryMS Don f.

Synonymous with board paper. A correction or addition supplied after the text of a work has been printedto be tipped in opposite to or on the page containing the line or passage to which it refers. A graphic work executed on paper or canvas, using sticks of pure ground pigment in a neutral, low-saturation binder, such as gum arabic or methyl cellulose, often with the addition of chalk or custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom. In color effect, pastels are closer to natural dry pigments than any other art medium.

Click here to see a self-portrait in pastel by Jean-Baptiste Chardin, courtesy of the Louvre. A book bound in paper decorated by the application of a starch adhesive mixed with pigment to give the surface design and texture. Click here to see an 18th-century German example Princeton University Library and here to persuasive essay ghostwriting site a later example in quarter cloth.

Click here and here to see contemporary examples, courtesy of Ball Peen Bindery. Paste-painting has also learn more here used in bookbinding to decorate the edge s of the custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom s see this example.

In printingthe arrangement on a large sheet of paper of the page proof s of several pages, to enable the typographer to position the textillustration s, heading s, caption s, and other elements of the finished publication in a design that meets the publisher 's specifications. From the Italian pasticcio meaning medley. Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom bookbindingthe process of securely affixing one half of a double- leaf endpaper to the inside of each of the board s of the coverover the turn-in.

In hand-bindingthis step is a finishing touch, the body of the book having been laced to the cover, but in case bindingit is the endleaves that attach the body to the case. Compare with gluing off. A work of poetryfiction custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, dramaart, or music intended for an urban audiencein which idealized rustic life is depicted in a bucolic setting tinged with romantic nostalgia see this example by the 19th-century painter Alvan Fisher.

Milton's Paradise Lost is a literary example and Beethoven's Symphony No. See : P hotographic A ctivity T est. A leaf in a medieval manuscript that has been repair ed by sewing a piece of custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom or vellum over a hole or tear in the original membrane. Click here to see examples on a leaf in early 16th-century antiphonal Leaves of Gold. Sometimes a hole was left unpatched and the text written around it. See this example in a 12th-century manuscript British LibraryArundel A legal document issue d by the U.

The document is assigned a patent number by the patent office for future reference. An x-patent is a patent issued by the U. Patent and Trademark Office USPTO from July when the first U. Destroyed by a fire in December while in temporary storage, the collection of over 9, early patents has been reconstructed from inventors' copies.

Most large engineering libraries provide patent search database s and services. Click here to learn more about how patents work and here to learn more about U. Patent custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Trademark Office site.

The Canadian government provides the Canadian Patents Database. See also : patent and trademark resource center and patent drawing. A library designated by the U.

See more and Trademark Office USPTO to receive and store copies of U. Created by federal statute inthe Patent and Trademark Resource Center Program has grown to include more than 80 libraries, half of which are academic librarieswith nearly as many public librariesone state libraryand a special library devoted to research.

See also : Patent and Trademark Depository Library Association. Patent and Trademark Depository Library Association PTDLA. An affiliate of the American Library Association ALAPTDLA is dedicated to advising the U. Patent and Trademark Office USPTO on custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom interests, needs, opinions, and goals of patent and trademark resource centers PTRCs and their users, and to assisting the PTO in planning and implementing appropriate services.

Click here to connect custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom the PTDLA homepage. Patent and Trademark Office. Patent and Trademark Office.

A technical drawing made to describe an object or process for the purpose of obtaining patent protection, often a mechanical drawing or diagram. In the United States, patent drawing s are retained as documentation in a patent file stored in a patent and trademark resource center. Click here to see the patent drawings of Eli Whitney's cotton gin, courtesy of Wikipedia. To see other examples, try a keywords search on the term "patent drawing" in Google Images.

The person or persons in whose name s a patent is registered. The patentee has the right to profit from custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom or her invention, seek an injunction to prevent infringement, and recover damages for violation of patent rights. In exchange, the patent holder is expected to supply the patented invention to the public, under reasonable terms. A collection of drawing s and specifications for patent s, index ed by country and patent number, name of patenteeor subjectusually maintained in a patent and trademark resource center.

A subject bibliography designed to lead the user through the process of research ing a specific topicor any topic in a given field or disciplineusually in a systematic, step-by-step way, making use of the best finding tool s the library has to offer. Pathfinders may be print ed or available online. See read article : topical guide.

See : USA Patriot Act. From the Latin patres meaning "fathers. Well-known examples are Saint Augustine, Saint Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom translator of the VulgateSaint John Chrysostom, and Saint John of Damascus.

Although patristic literature does not constitute a closed canon with clearly defined boundaries, the Patristic period is generally considered to have begun with the completion of the New Testament at the end of the 1st century and ended at the close of the 8th century. Not all patristic authors wrote in Latin or Greek, but the work s of those who wrote in other language s were translated into Latin and Greek. Any person who uses the resources and services of a librarynot necessarily a registered borrower.

See also : patron IDpatron recordpatron typeand problem patron. It was not unusual for a sponsored work to be formally dedicated to the benefactor, in custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom and hope of further financial assistance. In a more general sense, any person or group that encourages or supports an activity, project, or institution such as a library, especially by providing funds or other material resources.

Personal information about a user name, current address and phone number, item s checked outoutstanding finesetc. For reasons of privacymost libraries in the United States do not keep permanent records of the materials used or borrowed by a patron, nor do they use confidential information for marketing purposes. Some libraries have developed a privacy policy concerning patron data which they make known to their users.

An e-book purchasing model, first introduced by NetLibrary, in which selection decisions are based on input from library patron s. Working with the vendorthe librarian establishes an approval profile based on classificationsubjecteducational level, publication datecost, and other criteria. E-book custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom s matching the profile are then shared with the library 's community of users via MARC records in the online catalog.

When a specific e-book has been discovered and viewed a predetermined number of times, it is automatically purchased for custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom collection. Libraries with limited budget s can set spending limits on their PDA plans.

Variations on this model have been developed Pillen best dissertation hypothesis editing website for phd hat Ingram's MyiLibrary and by Ebook Library EBL. Synonymous with demand-drive acquisition. The means by which staff at the circulation desk of a library ascertain that a custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom is a registered borrowerusually the person's library cardstudent ID card, security badgeor a substitute.

Also refers to the number used in most library circulation system s to identify the borrower. Sometimes it is the library card number, but in academic libraries it may be the student ID number or the social security number. In special librariespatron ID may be linked to the employee identification system used by the parent organization. Each library or library system adopts its own method of patron identification. See also : patron fios custom analysis essay proofreading for hire for masters Lasertherapie. A description of the behavior and preferences of a library 's users, or of a specific category of library patron adults, young adults, childrenusually based on systematically collected and analyzed survey datafor use in planning.

Library Journal publishes the online quarterly Patron Profiles. A confidential record in a library circulation system containing data pertinent to a borrower account full name, street address, telephone number, patron IDpatron typeitems on loan, hold s, unpaid finesetc.

In electronic circulation systems, an authorized member of the library staff is permitted to access the patron record by scanning the barcode on the library card or by using a keyboard to enter the patron's name or library card number as input. Some online catalog s allow registered borrowers to view thir own patron records with proper authorization. Synonymous with circulation record.

See also : blocked. In library circulation system s, a code entered in the patron record to indicate a specific category of borrowerwhich in conjunction with item type determines the loan rule applied when an item is checked out. Academic libraries usually differentiate facultystudent, alumni, and staff by patron type. Most public libraries distinguish between nonresidents and patron s who reside within the service area and between adult and juvenile users. In special librariespatron type may reflect hierarchical rank within the parent organization, levels of security clearance, etc.

A personal name derived from the given name of the father, or of a more distant paternal ancestor, usually by the addition of a prefix examples : ben JacobMacArthurO'Brienetc. A manuscript or printed publication containing designs meant to be copied, or custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom for making something, with or without instructions. Click here to see the pattern book of William Jones, an 18th-century weaver.

Pattern books for artists, designers, craftsmen, and architects often consist entirely of illustration s with no accompanying text. Click here to see a page in Polychromatic Decoration as Applied to Buildings in the Medieval Styles by William and George Audsley, the first pattern book devoted to the painted decoration of medieval-style buildings University of Delaware Library.

Also used synonymously with model book. The principle incorporated into Library of Congress subject heading s in that allows a full set of free-floating subdivision s to be established for one or a few representatives of a particular category of subject heading s or name heading s, which are appropriate for use under other main heading s belonging to the same category.

For example, the subdivision --Biopsy under the pattern heading Heart can be used under the heading Breast even though no specific authority record exists for the combination Breast--Biopsy. The rule does not apply when there custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom a conflict with a heading established in the subject authority file in another form. For example, the subdivision --Dislocation under the pattern heading Foot may not be applied to the heading Joints because the combination Joints--Dislocation is a UF used custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom reference under the heading Dislocations in the subject authority file.

A movement gained momentum in the second half of the 20th century to eliminate the earnings gap between men and both women and people of color for the same type of work. In the United States, predominantly female occupations, such as nursing, social work, and librarianshiphave typically been compensated at a significantly lower rate than comparable occupations in which males are predominant.

Click here to connect to the homepage of the National Committee on Pay Equity, a coalition established in A penalty may be charged for late payment.

Click here to see three 19th-century binding s executed in Payne style Princeton University Library. To see additional examples, try a search on the keyword "payne" in custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom British Library 's Database of Bookbindgs.

In marketing, an expenditure of funds that produces a return greater than the investment. When return equals investment, the result is known as break-even.

The interval at which an employee is paid, usually weekly, biweekly, or monthly, depending on the payroll system of the employer. Hours worked are usually reported to the payroll department at the end of each period on a timesheet signed by the employee. A service enabling libraries and users to purchase immediate access to the full text of an article or to research data without subscribing to the periodical or other source in which it was published.

In most cases, the library has the option of limiting service to specific categories of users, for example, faculty members or researcher s in academic libraries. Current awareness service is usually available with pay-per-view access. Electronic delivery is often priced lower than fax. Periodic report s detailing number of purchases per title and publisher enable librarian s to compare per-view costs with the price of adding a subscription. For more information, see the article "Pay by the Slice" in the spring issue of Netconnect.

A telephone located in a public area from which anyone may make calls in exchange for payment in cash or by calling card. Most libraries that open their doors to the public provide at least one payphone as a courtesy to their users. The list of employees who are paid salaries and wages by an employer, usually by check or direct deposit on a weekly, biweekly, or monthly basis.

Library employees may be required to sign a timesheet for each pay periodstating the hours they worked. See : public best blog ghostwriter services school. See : p ersonal c omputer and p olitical c orrectness.

See : P rogram for C ooperatrive C ataloging. See : P hoto CD. See : video game. See : p ublic d omain. Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom : p atron- d riven a cquisition and p ersonal d igital a ssistant.

See : P ortable D ocument F ormat. See : P ublishing and D epository S ervices. Founded in custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, the George Foster Peabody Award is the oldest electronic media award in the world, recognizing excellence, distinguished achievement, and meritorious public service. The first radio awards were presented inthe first television awards inthe first cable custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom awards inand the first Web site awards in Administered by the Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia, the Peabody Awards honor content from large broadcast network s to small online outlets, from popular entertainment programs to independently produced documentaries.

Click here to connect to the Peabody homepage. The period s in a day, week, month, and year during which the services and resources of a library or computer system are most heavily used.

Transaction log s, circulation statisticsand gate count s are compiled and analyzed to reveal recurrent periods of peak use. The results are useful in establishing library hour s, anticipating staff ing needs, scheduling maintenance, etc. A parchment bookbinding decorated with painted designs, made for sale to the common people during the 17th and 18th centuries, now more rare than leather binding s of the same period, which were more expensive.

Click here to see an 18th-century German example, courtesy of Southern Methodist University. Prior to aboutbooks were copied mainly by monastic scribes working in scriptoria. Once book production became a commercial enterprise, stationers in university towns Paris, Bologna, Oxford, etc.

See : tunnel book. The process in which the job performance of a librarian or other library staff member is assessed by the individual's more info and a recommendation made concerning contract renewal or promotion. In academic libraries at institutions that grant librarians faculty statustenure decisions may also be based on peer evaluation.

In libraries in which employment custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom governed by a collective bargaining agreementthe method of peer evaluation may be determined by contract.

Synonymous with peer review. The process in which a new bookarticlesoftware programetc. Under most conditions, the identity of the referee s is kept confidential, but the identity of the author s is not. The existence and content of a manuscript under review is kept confidential within the offices of the publisher and by the referees, and http://dvdbestonline.co/best-mba-research-paper-example.php copies of the manuscript are returned to the publisher at the end of the process.

In computer program ming, source code may be certified by its owner or licenser as open source to encourage development through peer review. Synonymous with juried review. Also refers to a method of performance evaluation in which the quality of a worker's job performance is assessed by the employee's peers within the organization, usually as part of a formal review process resulting in a recommendation to management. Said of a scholarly journal that requires an article to be subjected to a process of critical evaluation by one or more experts on the subjectknown as referee s, responsible for determining if the subject of the article falls within the scope of the publication and for evaluating originality, quality of research, clarity of presentation, etc.

Changes may be suggested to the author s before an article is finally accepted for publication. In evaluation for tenure and promotionacademic librarian s may be given publishing credit only for articles accepted by peer-reviewed journals. Some bibliographic database s allow search results to be limited to peer-review ed journal s. Synonymous with juried and refereed. File sharing between Internet users whose computers have been assigned IP address es and are therefore capable of functioning as server s, a method of information exchange that became possible after when IP addresses were made available to PC s intermittently connected to the Internet.

Unlike client-server network s in which certain computers are dedicated to serving others, workstation s in a peer-to-peer network have equivalent capabilities. In the last decade of the twentieth century, P2P file sharing application s became the focus of litigation for facilitating the exchange of music protected by copyright. More recently, Internet service provider s have tried to clamp down on P2P file sharing because of its high- bandwidth usage.

Critics writing mba best usa hire for essay out that P2P networking has legitimate uses, and some claim that throttling P2P file sharing is intended to direct users to client-server architecture, which allows content continue reading be controlled more easily.

An educational experience in which a group learning process is facilitated by one or more trained group members, rather than a professional expert, to encourage participation and strengthen identification between leader and learner. See : public access television. In early bookbindingthe process of attaching the sewing supportsusually cord s, to the board s by means of a peg or dowel usually made of wood sunk into the surface of the board at the outer end of each of the channels or grooves in which the cords were recessed.

Click here Aussage, custom papers ghostwriter service usa inotropen see an illustration of the process Leaves of Gold. See also : lacing in. A handheld implement used in Western cultures to write in ink on papyrusparchmentvellumpaperor some other prepared custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom surface, as opposed to the brush used for writing in Asian and other cultures.

The reed pen calamus was used in Antiquity and the early Christian period for writing on papyrus. Because of its flexibility, the quill pen was adopted in the 6th century for writing on parchment and vellum.

The first five flight feathers of the goose or swan were preferred the word is derived from the Latin penna for "feather". After removing or trimming the barbs and curing the barrel, the nib of the quill was cut up the center and squared off with a knife. The nib had to be trimmed fairly often because the slit tended to spread open with extended use. See also : penwork initial.

An additional narrativestatement, or composition that completes or complements another work but is independent of it, for example, an essay illuminating the historical custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom of a satirical work. A paper or electronic custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom in which document s pertaining to matters that cannot be immediately resolved are allowed to accumulate until circumstances are more favorable for their disposition.

A rapidly growing pending file may be a sign of overwork or a bottleneck in workflow. In the OCLC interlibrary loan system, a loan request sent by a borrowing library that appears in the message file of a potential lending library. Compare these examples in a 15th-century English manuscript British LibraryArundel with this gilt example in a 15th-century Italian manuscript British Library, Arundel Pen flourish es were also added to other decorative elements, such as border s, as in this leaf from a 15th-century Dutch Book of Hours British LibraryArundel and this English manuscript of the same century British Library, Lansdowne Compare with penwork initial.

See also : filigree letter. Founded in London inPEN International is a worldwide association of writers dedicated to promoting friendship and cooperation among writers of all nationalities, defending freedom of expression, and advancing the role of literature in the development of mutual understanding and respect among nations. Click here to connect to the PEN International homepage. An array of literary award s and fellowship s funded by various sources and administered by the PEN American Centeran organization of writers dedicated for over 80 years to advancing literaturepromoting a culture of reading, and defending freedom of expression.

The prizes are given for excellence in the following areas: custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom achievement, fictionliterary translationcreative nonfictionpoetrydramachildren's literatureand editing and publishing. Click here to learn more about the PEN Awards. A name used by an author other than his or her real name, usually adopted to conceal identity. A pen name can be an allonym name of an actual person other than the authora fictitious pseudonym example : Avi for Edward Irving Wortisa pseudonym based on the author's real name Dr.

Seuss for Theodor Seuss Geiselor a word or phrase that is not a personal name Spy for Sir Leslie Ward. Pen names were used more commonly during the 19th century when writing was not as respectable as it is today and therefore considered an unsuitable occupation for women George Eliot for Mary Ann Evans Cross.

Some authors write under more than one pen name, adopting a different name when writing in a new genre or introducing a new lead character or set of characters in a series. Click here to connect to a. Synonymous with nom de plume.

See also : eponym and pseudandry. A sensational melodrama in the form of a novel or novelette of mysterycrimeor adventureprinted in cheap paperback editionthe equivalent in England of the dime novel.

Click here to learn more about penny dreadfuls, courtesy of the British Library. The Stanford University Libraries provide the online exhibition Dime Novels and Penny Dreadfuls. The first five book s of the Old Testament of the Biblesometimes produced as a separate manuscript by medieval scribe s. Click here to view a facsimile of the 6th century Ashburnham Pentateuch University of Arizona Library and here to see a page from a limited edition of the Hebrew Pentateuch printed in the early 20th-century See also : Hexateuch and Octateuch.

Linear decoration added by the penman to an initial letter in a medieval manuscriptin ink of the same or contrasting color, common particularly in 12th- and 13th-century Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom manuscripts.

Click here to see an example in a 15th-century Italian antiphonal Cary CollectionRochester Institute and here to see additional examples in a Latin New Testament University of Florida Libraries.

Probatio pennae in Latin. A catch phrase, name, letteror sketch written in the margin or on one of the flyleaves of a manuscript to test a newly trimmed pen nib see this examplecourtesy of the British LibraryArundel Quill pen s require frequent recutting to maintain a stiff nib. A decorated initial letter in a medieval manuscript or early printed bookdone entirely in pen -and- inkwithout the application of paint. Medieval scribe s used black, brown, red, blue, and green ink.

Click here to see plain examples in red and blue on a leaf from an early 16th-century German missal Cary CollectionRochester Institute and here to see a more elaborate example in a Dutch Book of Hours Leaves of Gold.

For tours de forcesee examples in the Syracuse Gradual Syracuse University LibraryMS Compare with pen-flourished initial. See also : puzzle initial. The rate at which a product or service is billed on a daily basis.

Also refers to the maximum amount allowed by an employer for expenses meals, lodging, etc. When expenses are paid per diem, the recipient may not be required to submit receipt s. Libraries often use the Domestic Per Diem Rates established by the U. General Services Administration GSA. A quick and comparatively inexpensive method of adhesive binding in which the binding edge of the text block custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom milled to produce a block of leaves and then roughened.

Fast-drying adhesive is applied to the uneven surface and the case or cover attached custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom sewing and backing. Nearly all book s published in paperback are bound by this method, which is also used for some hardcover special edition s, for example, book club edition s.

Durability depends on the strength of the adhesive and its capacity to remain flexible over time, usually not as long-lasting as a sewn or stitched binding. See also : double-fan adhesive bindinghot-meltand notched binding. The process of printing the second side of a sheet. On a perfecting pressboth sides are printed in a single pass. Synonymous with backing up.

See also : register. A mechanical device designed to produce a permanent mark on a sheet of paper or page in a book by punching a pattern of tiny holes in the fibers, once used by libraries to mark ownership but now largely replaced by the rubber stamp. Notaries still use this tool to validate their signature s. Cutting or punching a line of small, closely spaced holes or slits along the inner margin of a pageor around matter printed on a sheetto custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom a page or portion of a page easier to tear out click to see more off.

Also refers to the line of holes produced for that purpose. See also : perforating stamp. A row of small, evenly spaced, accurately shaped holes punched along one or both edges of the length of motion picture filmby which it is advanced through the camera, printer, or projector using a toothed mechanism, called a sprocketthat engages the holes as it turns.

Size and number of sprocket holes per frame varies with film gauge see these examples. Sprocket damage cracks, tears, deformations, etc. Click here to learn more about sprockets and how film projectors work, courtesy of HowStuffWorks.

For custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom of copyright custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom USCto recite, render, play, dance, or act a workeither directly or by means of any device or process or, in the case of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, to show its images in any sequence or to make the sounds accompanying it audible. A work is publicly performed when rendered directly at a place open to the public or at any place where a substantial number of persons from outside a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances is gathered; or by transmission to members of the public in the same place or in separate places and at the same time or at different times.

In the cataloging of moving image s, a work intended to document all or part of an actual live presentation of dance, music recital, concert, opera, etc. The television series "Live from Lincoln For canada ghostwriting essay best hire school is an example.

Although the content of the work produced may be fiction al, the work documenting it is considered nonfiction. Also refers to the presentation or exhibition itself. Because execution varies however slightly between performances, even of the same production, each performance is unique. See also : job performancemedium of performanceand performer. The process of judging the competence with which an employee has performed the duties and responsibilities associated with the position for which the person was hired by a company or organization, usually for the purpose of contract visit web page or promotion.

In librariesjob performance may be evaluated entirely by management or in a process of peer evaluation. Synonymous with performance measurement. See also : accountability. See also : input measure and output measure. See : performance evaluation. An individual who plays a visible part in a work created for a medium of performance playcustom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom picturemusical compositiondance, etc.

In library catalogingthe names of leading performers may be included as added entries MARC field in the bibliographic description of a custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom performance filmvideocassetteaudiocassetteCDetc.

See also : composer and director. A large single sheet of heavy paper or cardboard, printed on one side only, usually with illustrationto advertise a theatrical performance or other public entertainment, or to promote one or more performers without reference to a specific event.

The category includes concert poster s, dance posters, motion picture posters, and theatrical posters click here and click here to see examples. The right to read or perform a work protected by copyrightsuch as a playoperaor ballet, to a paying audience, usually licensed by a performing rights society on behalf of the copyright holder supon payment custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom a fee. An associationcorporation, custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom other entity responsible for licensing the public performance and broadcast of nondramatic musical work s on behalf of the copyright holder s and for collecting and distributing licensing fees to the owners.

Examples include the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers ASCAP ; Broadcast Music, Inc.

BMI ; SESAC, Inc. An ancient city on the west coast of Asia Minor near the modern town of Bergama, Turkey, the location of a custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom royal library and custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom built during the Hellenistic period by Eumenes II of the Attalid dynasty to rival the great center of learning at Alexandria in Egypt. The use of parchment as a writing surface is believed to have originated at Pergamum.

A list of sets of verse s letter site a texteach of which forms a coherent literary unit suitable Chancen best masters essay writer services for mba ist public reading, for example, Mark of the Biblesix verses that tell the story of the encounter of Jesus in a synagogue with a man with a withered hand.

Some early bibles and Gospel book s included pericope lists. The punctuation mark that indicates the end of an ordinary sentence, also used as a mark of abbreviation.

Synonymous with full point and full stop. See also : dot. In library catalogingthe period of a work is indicated by adding a chronological subdivision to the class or subject heading. A bibliography limited to work s covering a specific period of time, for example, American history of the colonial period or the progressive era.

A serial publication with its own distinctive titlecontaining a mix of article s, editorial s, review s, column s, short storiespoem s, or other short work s written by more than one contributorissued in softcover more than once, generally at regular stated intervals of less than a year, without prior decision as to when the final issue will dissertation proposal sites for phd. Although each issue is complete in itself, its relationship to preceding issues is indicated by enumerationusually issue number and volume number printed on the front cover.

Content is controlled by an editor or editorial board. Also, the statement in AACR2 that serials include periodicals, newspapers, annual s, proceeding s, and numbered monographic series implies that newspapers are not considered periodicals.

Content is indexed in finding tool s called periodical index es and abstracting service s, usually by subject and author. Most academic libraries custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom all the issues for a given publication year in one or more physical volume s.

The bibliographic volumes are numbered consecutively, starting with number one for the first year the title was issued. Periodicals are usually shelved alphabetical ly by title in a separate section of the library stacks.

In some libraries, current issue s are shelved separately from back file s, which may be converted just click for source microfiche or microfilm to conserve space. Microform reader-printer machines are provided for viewing and making copies. Periodicals published by the U. For many print periodicals, content is also available elecronically in full-text bibliographic database s or via the custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Web site.

Some periodicals are born digital and never issued in print example : Slate. See also : essay periodicalfrequencyholdings statementand one shot. A cumulative list of periodical article s in which the citation s are entered by subject or in classified arrangement and sometimes under the author 's last name, separately or in a single alphabetic sequence.

Periodical indexes may be general example : Reader's Guide to Custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom Literaturedevoted to a specific academic discipline Education Index or group of disciplines Humanities Indexor limited to custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom particular type of publication Alternative Press Index.

In librariesperiodical indexes are available in print and as bibliographic database s, online or on CD-ROM. Compare with abstracting service. See also : Essay presidential help popular writing custom on elections. Also, an index to one or more volume s of a specific periodical.

A here of display furniture, often with sloping shelves, used in libraries to display current issue s of periodical s face outnot as compact as conventional shelving but more accessible to browser s see these examples. The sloping shelf may be hinged to allow a limited number of back issue s to be stored on a flat shelf behind it see this example. The production of book s or other printed publication s in a style appropriate to visit web page period of time in which the material was originally issue d.

Also, the production of a book in a style resembling that of an earlier period, although the text may have been written by a contemporary authorusually conceived by the publisher as a promotion al device. See : chronological subdivision. In Dewey Decimal Classification DDCa table giving chronological time periods with their notation. For the literature s of many cultures, period tables are included in the main schedule s.

They vary in length, depending on the literary history of the culture. For work s not limited to a specific languageperiod notation is taken from Table 1 of the auxiliary schedule s. A device used in conjunction with a computer that is not an indispensable or inseparable part of it.

Microcomputer peripherals are used for input keyboardmousescanneroutput printermonitoraudio speaker sstorage floppy diskCD-ROMand communication modem. The trend has been to build peripherals into PC s, especially laptop s. Synonymous with auxiliary equipment.

See also : central processing unit. Saying something in a less direct, more roundabout way. Synonymous in this sense with circumlocution. Also refers to speech or writing that uses an excess of words to convey an idea or concept that could be expressed more succinctly.

An advantage enjoyed by an employee over and above the normal custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom to which the position is custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom, for example, free parking or exemption from overdue fine s for the staff of some libraries. The quality of library materials designed to last indefinitely without significant deteriorationdefined by preservation librarian s as a change of 1 percent or less in years.

In printed publication s, permanence is achieved through the use of acid-free paper s and binding materials, which may also be buffered for extra protection. See also : permanent paper. A type of visible ink used in applying ownership mark s to library materials because it cannot be easily removed. Paper manufactured to resist chemical deterioration that occurs as a result of aging. The most important factor in permanence is a minimum pH of 7.

Acid-free paper is preferred in library and archival materials because it contains low levels of ligninan acidic substance that causes paper document s to yellow and become brittle over time. The acid paper used for printing book s and other publication s during the 19th and early 20th centuries has created a major preservation imperative for research libraries and special collections.

Some permanent papers are buffered with an alkaline substance to counteract acids that develop after manufacture or are introduced from an outside source.

Synonymous with durable paper. Authorization, usually granted in custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom by the copyright holderto quote or excerpt passages of text or reproduce illustration s from a work protected by copyright law.

Failure to obtain permission may constitute infringement. See also : Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. A copy of a book containing quoted or excerpt ed material sent to the copyright holder at first publication to confirm that passages were used in accordance with the permission s granted. A type of subject index in which a string of significant words or phrase s, usually extracted from the title of a work or assigned as content descriptor s by an indexer, are rotated to bring each word or phrase into first-word position in the alphabetical sequence of entries.

Some publisher s and vendor s of electronic resource s are willing to provide access to materials in digital format paid for by a library during a subscription even after the subscription has been canceled by the library. Archival access is secured by a clause in the licensing agreement that should be requested wird esl dissertation hypothesis writers site gb ein contract negotiations.

The basic Licensing Principles for custom dissertation hypothesis proofreading website united kingdom information resources established by IFLA in state that "a license should include provision for affordable, perpetual access to the licensed information by some appropriate and workable means.

A calendar with the days and weeks arranged to allow the user to determine the correct day of the week for any given date within a wide span of years.

Most are circular in shape see this example. A database for which access is billed by the searchrather than by subscription. The charge may be a fixed amount per search, as in OCLC FirstSearchor based on connect time.

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