Esl phd essay editor service canada

A total of valid questionnaires females and males from Taiwanese high school students and 15 interviewees from the students receiving esl phd essay editor service canada were the subjects in this study. The findings show that females had a stronger participative intrinsic motivation, while males displayed a higher participative interpersonal motivation.

Furthermore, female average scores were higher than the male ones on the comprehension tests. Even though the final results of the total scores for females were still higher than those of males, male scores for the interactivity tests were on average higher than those of females. The phenomena and implications behind the participative motivations are specifically discussed and explained. The beginning of chapter 1 asks teachers to think about the role of reading in their life, past and present, and on the influence of family, community, school, culture, and individual characteristics in defining the role of reading for them.

Pages discuss an approach to reading instruction based on extensive reading. Included is an account by a essay university us custom sites proofreading who taught a reading course based on extensive reading. One of her reasons was that she wanted to give students more responsibility. Many studies have shown that reading can have a beneficial effect on second language learning, but relatively few of these have focused on extensive reading in classroom environments esl phd essay editor service canada a period of time.

This study compares an extensive reading class against a more traditional class involving intensive reading and vocabulary exercises. The classes were part of a Saudi college presessional course, and this classroom setting posed several problems for the extensive reading approach, including relatively weak students, an environment where pleasure reading is atypical, and the course being of short duration.

The result is that the reported extensive reading class was carried out in what could be considered challenging conditions. Nevertheless, gain scores in reading comprehension ability, reading speed, and vocabulary acquisition showed that the extensive reading approach was just as effective as the intensive approach, even though some of the measurement instruments for these variables should have favored the intensive approach.

Moreover, the extensive reading participants reported much more positive attitudes toward reading, their class, and their learning than the participants in the intensive reading group.

Overall, these results indicate that, for the variables studied, the extensive reading approach was as good as, or better than, the more focused intensive reading [Note: This study is significant for its finding that extensive reading was unpopular among the subjects. Scope and method of study. In addition to providing esl phd essay editor service canada information about each variable in this relationship, the study examined how certain learner variables such as gender, and the amount of extensive reading may impact this relationship.

The participants in the study were females and males first-year university students enrolled in seven different higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia. Participants completed a reading strategies survey and took a vocabulary size test Schmitt, and a reading comprehension test. In general, Saudi EFL first-year university students had a low reading ability and an estimated small vocabulary size — word familieswhich is far below the threshold level needed for reading unsimplified English texts.

Except for a few strategies like critical reading, summarizing, using typographical aids, and noting text characteristics, the participants reported using most of the reading strategies with high and moderate frequencies. They also reported significantly more frequent use of problem-solving strategies. However, extensive reading was found to be an unpopular activity among EFL learners in Saudi Work proofreading site london. Participants with larger vocabulary size and higher reading proficiency reported using reading strategies more frequently than lower proficiency students.

The study concludes with some pedagogical implications and recommendations for further research. Research indicates that extensive reading has been an effective approach for learning a language and therefore, more investigation in different contexts is needed.

One major requirement for the success of the extensive reading approach is the availability of large amounts of materials for doing extensive reading. In many countries including Saudi Arabia, it has not been easy to gain access to such materials; however, the Internet has become as a potential solution for the lack of these materials. This qualitative research explores the experiences of Saudi female and male EFL learners in doing extensive reading through the Internet. Five female and five male Saudi EFL learners are interviewed in this study.

A skeptical group of three females and two males was adde d to the study to learn more about their attitudes towards Internet reading. Emails are used for facilitating and arranging the interviews and for follow more info questions whenever needed. Using multiple qualitative methods including interviews, documents, and emails, this study attempts to answer three research questions about the attitudes and beliefs of the participants concerning the following issues: 1 the benefits, features, and problems of Internet reading; 2 the impact of Internet reading on the participants, writing styles; 3 the impact of Internet reading on the participants, cultural-awareness.

This study shows that the majority of the participants have positive attitudes and successful experiences with Internet reading. The participants stated that Internet reading has many benefits, features and some problems. Based on the responses of this study, Internet reading has a positive impact on writing styles as well as cultural awareness. In addition, she presents the results of a survey conducted among secondary school students regarding their reading preferences.

The results of both the theoretical discussion and the survey indicate the significance of narrative structures for success in reading programmes. The popularity of the genre of fantasy is made clear, while the literary canon remains a major resource for those texts to be included in extensive reading programmes.

Intermediate learners of Spanish read a Spanish newspaper article with vocabulary assistance either before reading, while reading, both, or without any such assistance. Reading performance was significantly better for students receiving vocabulary assistance during reading, but esl phd essay editor service canada for those receiving it before reading. Reading time of the newspaper article was less for students receiving prereading vocabulary assistance, but total lesson time the prereading time plus reading time more for those students.

Given the particular activities of this study, cheap college descriptive essay help vocabulary activity before reading appears to speed up reading without affecting comprehension, while vocabulary assistance during reading appears to improve comprehension without affecting speed. In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners.

Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning DDLto make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the authenticity of the language learners are exposed to? Despite some differences, it is argued that the scale and type of lexical chunks are sufficient to provide input that reflects authentic language, suggesting that graded readers may offer an acceptable balance of accessibility and authenticity.

This qualitative study describes the attitudes and beliefs of two groups of ESL learners regarding extensive reading of authentic texts. In particular, it aims to focus on their beliefs and attitudes regarding vocabulary development through extensive reading of authentic materials. It investigates their point of view toward their experience with extensive reading in a three-month ESL course called Reading Club in which extensive reading was the main focus of the course.

The participants consist of two groups of ESL learners, one of which includes five students while the other includes four students.

The findings indicate that despite various reading difficulties esl phd essay editor service canada have encountered, the students of both groups have positive attitudes toward extensive reading of authentic texts and are motivated to read after the course has finished.

The findings also show that extensive reading has helped students develop and improve various language skills, including vocabulary, reading for meaning, grammar, listening, speaking, esl phd essay editor service canada pronunciation. The most salient finding is that both approaches, incidental and intentional vocabulary learning, have been employed to develop second language vocabulary. Vocabulary is an integral part of language. Today, many ESL students have access to the Esl phd essay editor service canada, where they can read extensively in L2 and improve their reading skill as well as vocabulary knowledge.

This dissertation project is a qualitative study that describes the approaches and attitudes of ESL business students towards learning vocabulary through Internet reading. Eighteen advanced ESL MBA students participated in the present study.

They were divided into two groups of 9 students each, referred to as readers and non-readers. Both groups were asked to complete a questionnaire and take a pretest and posttest, in order to assess their receptive vocabulary size. Readers were asked esl phd essay editor service canada read extensively on the Internet, keep regular vocabulary logs, write journal entries, participate in interviews, and take a final vocabulary written test tha t assessed the deep knowledge of the vocabulary items they attempted to learn during the 8-week period.

The results showed that readers scored higher in the posttest, compared to their mean score in the pretest, while non-readers maintained the same mean score both in the pretest and posttest.

Similarly, in the final vocabulary written test, readers obtained relatively high scores at the word meaning level, while their scores at the word usage level were relatively low. Based on the interviews, the journal entries, and the vocabulary logs, readers read extensively on the Internet about a wide range of topics such as business, entertainment, health, politics, and shopping, in addition visit web page reading academic articles.

These participants showed positive attitudes towards extensive reading and vocabulary learning on the Internet. In response, many esl phd essay editor service canada, such as The British Council, are providing primary schools with readers. To begin with a short review of the suitability of the readers esl phd essay editor service canada by the teachers after an initial pilot scheme is made.

Then students were tested in this evaluation to check if there esl phd essay editor service canada been Die esl expository essay editor site united states zum esl phd essay editor service canada improvement in the reading skills of the students in the school that received donations of supplementary readers.

Most of the librarians are not qualified, while the teachers, though qualified, lack training in how to use supplementary readers and also tend to be demotivated. Consequently, modifications are necessary to maximise the benefits of extensive reading in the future, such as training teachers and librarians as well as encouraging supplementary reading amongst the students.

It concludes that though extensive reading schemes produce impressive results in experimental situations, care should be taken in actual implementation of such schemes in real life.

The purpose of this article is to provide second language L2 reading teachers and curriculum developers a model of a balanced reading curriculum that includes an extensive reading ER component. I will consider several areas of esl phd essay editor service canada 1 vocabulary acquisition while reading as compared to direct vocabulary instruction, 2 the relation between amount of reading and growth in reading competence, 3 the influence of book floods, 4 the effects of whole language, and 5 available evidence on wide reading and literature-based instruction in the non-English-speaking developing world.

This review will focus primarily on empirical studies that have included measures of word recognition, basic comprehension of simple passages, and, especially, knowledge of word meanings. Although these facets of reading do not directly reflect the major goals of many advocates of literature-based instruction and wide reading, it is well established that measures of word recognition, passage comprehension, and vocabulary are powerful predictors of most aspects of literate behavior.

As compared to children who perform well on these measures, children who perform poorly also will perform less well on almost any other measure of literacy; and it is a distressing fact that they are likely to continue to do poorly.

Therefore, it is important to determine this web page literature-based instruction and wide reading lead to improvements in basic literacy.

In contemporary language courses of. A procedure is described: The teacher displays. Her job is to set the scene, to surround. It looks at an Extensive Reader and how content, style and genre which encourage visualisation can provide greater pleasure and therefore motivation for the language learner to read in the L2. It concludes with some suggestions for materials writers of Extensive Readers and Schlaf-Typ popular custom essay editor websites for mba des learner.

However, as he observes, this attempt seems to be problematic due to a lack of written English exposure e. In doing so, ER should be integrated into in-class intensive reading activities and be implemented in self-access learning SAL centres. The following article reports the findings of a qualitative evaluation of esl phd essay editor service canada online extensive reading program in German as a foreign language. Designed for advanced learners, it differs from traditional extensive reading programs in two important aspects: students read online instead of printed materials, and there was no teacher preselection to ensure that learners were reading at the i minus 1 level.

Data from reflections and questionnaires indicate that learners experienced a variety of affective and linguistic benefits. Interestingly, some learners purposely sought out more difficult texts to challenge themselves. There is also evidence that they developed into skilled second language readers, making conscious decisions about reading strategy and dictionary use.

Christian, now out of print. This page booklet has brief notes on the. The interdependence of illustration. Abstract based on edition This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms.

While research on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be easier to teach but may not represent the most frequently occurring vocabulary in spoken and written texts. These strategies integrate translation into the classroom as a productive strategy for learning that promotes learner autonomy.

By discussing techniques for bilingual classroom practice for the acquisition of core vocabulary at the introductory and intermediate level, this article lends support to recent proposals for integrating translation and extensive reading as key strategies for developing vocabulary.

However, psycholinguistics has influenced development of language teaching policies to the extent that many language teachers have advanced a more semantic, social, and communicative view of language. An extension of this approach suggests that reading for pleasure from appropriate second language L2 texts provides subconscious and progressively more difficult L2 input much like that essential for native language L1 acquisition.

The process is enhanced, it is proposed, by the interest and pleasure engendered by the texts. This hypothesis is supported by psychological principles of learning. It is concluded that if the conditions of L1 acquisition are approximated by extensive L2 reading i. The problem is poor gradation. Moreover, grading to elementary, intermediate and.

If a pupil reads five texts, pages. Fiction rather than fact, and stories especially written rather than. This paper is an overview of graded readers. It first outlines the characteristics of the graded reader, and its contribution to language teaching.

Second, suggestions are made as to the use of graded readers so that their potential may be maximized. Third, the grading click here themselves are analyzed, as are the levels of published titles in terms of their readability.

Next, the article presents a detailed bibliography of most available titles--from beginner to intermediate levels--of interest to secondary level and adult learners.

And finally, practical advice esl phd essay editor service canada given for setting up a library of graded readers. Suggestions include setting up a class library so that students can do self-selected extensive esl phd essay editor service canada for homework, with follow-up in class. There are few or no esl phd essay editor service canada exercises to be completed after reading.

Two Southeast Asia-based educators and a Japan-based educator discuss their experiences with and views on extensive reading. Among topics covered are their own reading development, influences from theory and research, what they have learned from their own students and fellow teachers, and practical issues, such as finding materials for extensive reading and encouraging student-student interaction as a way to promote extensive reading.

A basic rationale for graded reading is given, and a pilot extensive reading placement test is presented and reviewed. Various options are then set out for organizing a one-term term course of graded reading, before student feedback and wider questions of reading development are considered.

It is not, however, a traditional reading text. Rather, it is a design for a course in which students choose their own reading material--from newspapers, magazines, books, and even academic journals and textbooks--and read on their own.

By using the approach presented in this text, students become empowered to read with more ease and confidence materials written for native speakers of English. This article examines the foreign language learning needs of a specific group of undergraduates and postgraduates, principally learners of Russia, with particular reference to their need to develop reading skills in the foreign language.

It examines what actual reading this group do and how this relates to their previous language learning experience. This study investigated the effects of a the amount of pleasure reading completed, b the type of texts read i. The findings indicated that the participants who made the greatest fluency gains read an average ofstandard words and primarily read simplified texts up to the 1,headword level. This study also provides an empirically supported criterion best research paper uk ghostwriter site the minimum amount learners should read annually i.

The reading rates and reading comprehension of an Intensive Reading Group and esl phd essay editor service canada Pleasure Reading Groups were measured at the beginning and end of the academic year. All Pleasure Reading Groups made greater gains than the Intensive Reading Group, and the two Pleasure Reading Groups that read the most made greater reading rate gains than the Pleasure Reading Group that read the least. Reading one book every 2 weeks or more was the most effective means for promoting reading rate gains for the majority of learners.

An additional finding was that reading comprehension was consistently high on both the pretest and posttest; thus, the increased reading rates did not come at the expense of passage comprehension. A final finding esl phd essay editor service canada that reading simplified rather than unsimplified texts resulted in greater reading rate gains. An extensive reading program was established for elementary level language learners at the British Council Language Center in Sanaa, Yemen.

Practical advice is then offered to teachers worldwide on ways to encourage learners to engage in a focused and motivating reading program with the potential to lead students along a path to independence and resourcefulness in their reading and language learning.

Studies that measure reading speeds have been relatively few and far between however, and those that do exist rarely evaluate reading speed in relation to the effect of different classroom methodologies in the teaching of reading. Such techniques as have been employed on speed reading courses also tend to cause readers to suffer lower levels of reading comprehension.

The study reported in this article was conducted in the Yemen Arab Republic on young adult students working in various government ministries. It measured both reading speeds and comprehension in two groups of learners exposed to "intensive" and "extensive" reading programs respectively.

The "extensive" group was exposed to a regime of graded readers while the "intensive" group studied short texts followed by comprehension questions.

Results indicate that subjects exposed to "extensive" reading achieved both significantly faster reading speeds and significantly higher scores on measures of reading comprehension. Among the esl phd essay editor service canada of the project were class sets of graded readers, worksheets based on the books, an enlarged esl phd essay editor service canada photocopied from each book, flash cards for individual, pair, and class work.

Some of the post-reading activities included:. Studies on extensive reading report positive learner outcomes in reading, listening, speaking and writing, gains in motivation and expanded lexico-grammatical range Day et al. With this in mind, two teachers at an English language college for adults in Sydney, Australia started to use graded readers in their classes.

From the difficulties their students encountered they identified a significant gap in reading instruction in the General English GE syllabus at the college. This was not esl phd essay editor service canada the students for successful extensive reading. It was found that reciprocal teaching is a useful technique in this ELICOS context, with students esl phd essay editor service canada a remarkably positive attitude towards it for its contribution to their overall language learning outcomes.

The texts he encountered were analyzed for their content, their use of sources of authority, and the values that underpinned them. Text type and difficulty analysis were also performed. The findings show readings more varied in content and text type than is generally imagined for such courses, together with extensive use of sources of authority. A strong Western-intellectual-progressive value system was revealed.

The learning achieved by sites personal editor statement uk student is best described in terms of tuning the incoming ideas to fit existing structures, rather than the wholesale adoption of new concepts. These esl phd essay editor service canada support the idea that esl phd essay editor service canada reading is central to any EAP reading course. In it was still going on in the College. For thirty years the teaching of elementary French has been under continuous scrutiny, measurement, and revision.

Although in certain areas there remain unsolved, perhaps unsolvable, questions, some basic principles, an outline, an established chronological more info of trainings, effective materials and techniques, and a tested philosophy have come out of this long stage of esl phd essay editor service canada and error and constitute what may be called a method.

This book is the history and the testimonial of that method. Students read hundreds of pages each quarter. Students are shown how to read "for the fun of it," and the effect of. Look up only the words absolutely necessary for an understanding of. Select only material that interests you; what seems uninteresting is. Proceed from easy texts to difficult ones, being certain that the.

Reading lists are posted, and classroom talks in French stimulate a. Extensive reading is a means to an end and not an end in itself The acquired ability is measured by achievement. The question is not what.

Mary White has read, but what Mary White can read, does read and wants. And she must want to read; she must be induced to want to. Ability without desire is worse than desire without ability. Results of extensive reading include a trebling of esl phd essay editor service canada rate, a. Overall, there is a rising. Reading materials are almost non existent. Next, are suggested activities for pre-reading to accompany simplified readers, e. The longest part of the article provides suggested activities for while pupils are reading the simplified books, e.

Finally, suggestions are made for post-reading activities, e. In this interview, Waring and Helgesen discuss the past, present, and future of Extensive Reading ER in Esl phd essay editor service canada. Topics covered esl phd essay editor service canada the meaning of Extensive Reading, the introduction and development of ER programs in educational institutions, challenges in and advice for setting up a program, benefits of Extensive Reading for learners, ER learning styles, and multiple intelligences.

Waring and Helgesen also provide a glimpse of ER related organizations and their visions for the future of ER in Japan. The present study on second language L2 reading and individual. The investigation controls for topic. During regular class period [ sic ], 88 participants from. Results revealed that students believed they. As predicted, levels of self-assessed abilities positively. The study yielded significant.

The esl phd essay editor service canada suggest that the visit web page of the. This, together with the nature of an extensive reading. Topics treated therein include esl phd essay editor service canada up and managing a collection of books for extensive reading, encouraging students to read, monitoring and assessing extensive reading, and the use of class readers.

It is by pursuing the activity of extensive reading that the volume of practice necessary to achieve rapid and efficient reading can be achieved. It is also one of the means by which a foreigner may be exposed to a substantial sample of the language he may wish to learn without actually going to live in the country to which that language is native pp.

These ideas esl creative essay editing site online to achieve axiomatic status when stated as aphorisms by Christine Nuttall For the latter, they come down in favor of easy graded readers in which fewer than one word in every hundred is unfamiliar.

Extensive reading professional work writers au believed to have considerable esl phd essay editor service canada for learners both in terms of learning gains and motivation and seems to be becoming ever more popular in the ELT world. So far, however, there seems to be almost no integration of extensive reading and textbooks.

This article argues that textbooks should be encouraging extensive reading, since this will confer further legitimacy on extensive reading and may ease many of the practical difficulties that adopters of extensive reading face. The article then shows how textbooks could encourage extensive reading: directly, by including material involving extensive reading; and indirectly, by approaching textbook reading activities in ways more in tune with extensive reading.

A number of proposals for each of these approaches are discussed. Extensive reading is believed to have considerable benefits for learners both in terms of learning gains and motivation and seems to be becoming even more popular in the Esl phd essay editor service canada world. Types of books included in the annotated bibliography include picture books, word books, legends, fables, folktales, fairy tales, and non-fiction.

Books are cross referenced by location and ethnic background, and by topic. This study examined the rate at which English vocabulary was acquired from the 3 input modes of reading, reading-while-listening, and listening to stories. It selected 3 sets of esl phd essay editor service canada words within 4 frequency bands and esl phd essay editor service canada 2 test types immediately after the reading and listening treatments, 1 week later and 3 months later.

The results showed that new words could be learned incidentally in all 3 modes, but that most source were not learned. Items occurring more frequently in the text were more likely to be learned and were more resistant to decay.

The data demonstrated that, on average, when subjects were tested by unprompted recall, the meaning of only 1 of the 28 items met in either of the reading modes and the meaning of none of the items met in the listening-only mode, would be retained after 3 months. In addition, the list is divided into four phases, with books suitable for beginners, intermediate classes, advanced classes, and as a bridge to literature respectively.

Books that have been successfully used as class readers are also noted. A short introduction pp. An appendix, "Grading: A Bibliography" contains 50 items.

He examines the misuse just click for source such lists--this article is in the "Criticisms of Current Practice" section of his cover letter ghostwriting websites for offers a 5-step checklist for writing for language learners, as a way to prevent a lexicon being used as "a straight-jacket on interesting writing.

The article focuses on two issues: the initial stages of the project which has been very much influenced by a similar one carried out by Elley effective best personal statement editor service online Behandlung Mangubhai, ; and some aspects of the backgrounds of the pupils involved.

Amount can be amount of new text read. As an alternative, the author suggests that the most significant dimensions. Extensive Reading is a resource heavy technique used in second language acquisition in which language learners read large amounts of texts for enjoyment, with the expectation that they will improve their vocabulary and fluency as a result of exposure to the written language.

This literature review concludes that the evidence suggests both techniques can be effective valuable to second language learners and foreign language learners.

It is also suggested that librarians should be aware of these techniques in personal statement hire for best editing to ensure that collection policies and advice to patrons can assist learners with creating their own Extensive Reading or Narrow Reading programmes. Libraries should also consider working in co-operation with each other to supply Extensive Reading or Narrow Reading projects to areas where there is a known need for material in a given language.

These commercials are posted online to share students joy in reading and to persuade others to read more. Three propositions which bear upon second language learning are defined: 1 Some students need or desire only to be able to read and it is legitimate to design courses for such students which omit training in oral skills unless these help with reading.

It follows from these three propositions that it might be worth experimenting with courses which first teach the recognition of grammatical forms, then the recognition of lexicon, but which minimize both phonology and active production of sentences in the new language.

Techniques by which this could be accomplished would have the added advantage of avoiding the childish level of materials with which even adult students must usually contend when beginning a foreign language. Students who wish to read French and who are willing to omit instruction in the spoken language have learned successfully by using texts that are mixtures of French and English.

The texts begin with English words in French word order, and in subsequent passages a few French words are substituted for the English words. Later the proportion of French gradually rises. The method has the advantage that adult students can practice from the beginning with adult materials.

They need never be subjected to the French equivalent of "Dick and Jane". The method also allows a relatively systematic introduction of grammatical material, another advantage for the adult student, and it allows a good many aspects of the language to be absorbed relatively unconsciously through extensive exposure to written materials. Its major disadvantage is the unaesthetic appearance of the mixed texts. The method violates a number of widely held assumptions about second language instruction but reasons exist for doubting all these assumptions.

Learners begin with reading L1 translations of L2 texts written with L2 word order. Gradually, students are introduced to similar texts with an increasing quantity of L2 vocabulary. Advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. The author explains the rationale for the method by attempting to debunk four assumptions about L2 acquisition: 1 the primacy of oral over written language; 2 the integral unity of a language; 3 inviolable boundaries separate different languages from one another; 4 language production goes hand in hand with comprehension.

The effects of extensive reading and reading strategies on reading self-efficacy. Temple University, Tokyo, Japan. This study is a quasi-experimental, longitudinal investigation into the role that extensive reading and reading strategies play in the cultivation of reading self-efficacy. Conducted over the course of one academic year, how changes in reading self-efficacy translate into changes in reading comprehension wasexamined.

A final goal was to ascertain how retrospective ratings of reading self-efficacy influence current levels of the construct. Data for the study were obtained from six major sources: a reading comprehension test, a reading strategy test, a reading self-efficacy questionnaire, a perceived utility of extensive reading questionnaire, a perceived utility of reading strategies questionnaire, and a sources of reading self-efficacy questionnaire. The questionnaires and tests were administered three times over the course of Sie esl essay writing sites for university Open academic year.

Before conducting the quantitative analyses on the data gathered with the above instruments, the dichotomous test and questionnaire data were analyzed usingthe Rasch rating-scale model esl phd essay editor service canada confirm the validity and reliability of the instruments and to transform the raw scores into equal interval esl phd essay editor service canada. By employing MANOVAs, Botany websites, Latent Growth Curve Modeling, and Pearson correlation coefficients, the data were then analyzed to ascertain differences between groups and within groups for all tests and constructs measured.

In addition, thesis editing sites gb three experimental groups outperformed the intensive reading group in reading comprehension. Furthermore, results from the latent growth curve model showed that gains in reading self-efficacy were related positively to gains in reading comprehension.

In a similar vein, the results showed that gains in reading strategy skill led to changes in reading self-efficacy, while reading amount was not significantly related to changes in reading self-efficacy.

The results also suggested that those who more highly regard extensive reading as useful to improving reading comprehension exhibited higher levels of reading self-efficacy over the course of the study. On the contrary, there was esl phd essay editor service canada significant difference in levels of reading self-efficacy between those who highly rated reading strategies as useful and those who did not rate them as highly.

Finally, Pearson correlation coefficients showed moderately strong relationships between junior high and high school retrospective levels of reading self-efficacy and university current levels. These results underscore the importance of self-efficacy in the learning process and how the cultivation of self-efficacy should be a goal of any educator or administrator in an EFL context.

The findings also highlight the detrimental effects of teaching methodologies, such as grammar-translation, that deprive learners of the opportunity to develop their own cognitive abilities. Suggests a test which shows whether a student has actually read the material or has simply gained a superficial knowledge of it.

Discusses advantages and disadvantages of multiple-choice. Suggests test exchange for interested teachers. Also, their personal experience with the approach, including the effect of extensive reading on their foreign language anxiety, was investigated. A total of fourteen teachers in a professional development program participated in the study. They were situated in a print-affluent classroom replete with approximately books including graded readers, young adult books, some magazines, best sellers and steady seller books.

In the reading program, the teachers experienced sustained silent reading, and participated in classroom discussion and activities related to extensive reading. Also, these teachers were strongly encouraged to do outside reading. Data were collected from multiple sources to enhance the credibility of the study, that is, classroom observation including field notes and audio recordings, learner diaries, and interviews. Three surveys were also administered--the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale, The Teacher Foreign Language Anxiety Scale, and the Affective Questionnaire to Extensive Reading.

The findings from the study showed that although the teachers were somewhat resistant to the idea of reading English-language books extensively prior to their participation, they became proponents of the approach once they had the experience of pleasure reading.

They also expressed a fondness for graded readers and literature for young adults because of the simplified language and appealing themes that characterize such reading materials, and were willing to introduce them to students in secondary schools. Teachers also recognized the esl phd essay editor service canada benefits of extensive reading including vocabulary expansion, positive reading attitude, and a sense of accomplishment from reading extensively.

In terms of the applicability issue, however, the participating teachers recommended introducing the approach gradually rather than implementing it immediately, mainly because of the test-emphasized classroom culture of the secondary level curriculum in Korea.

In a similar vein, teachers also addressed problematic factors that would be considered an obstacle to bringing the approach to the secondary curriculum. Therefore, as mentioned earlier, they proposed a gradual approach and the use of extra-curricular activities was mentioned as a possible first step to take.

Regarding the effect of extensive reading on foreign language anxiety, the data from the scale and from interviews indicated that participating teachers were not highly anxious even prior to the program. This article reviews the literature critical of readability formulas from the perspective of their use in second language reading contexts. This article argues for the need for both intensive and extensive reading in esl phd essay editor service canada EAP reading curriculum, and further argues that a principled curricular approach to combining both is through Task-Based Language Teaching TBLT.

Given the need for academic preparation programs that focus on college and university requirements so that students are taught literacy skills which are transferable to academic contexts, this paper esl phd essay editor service canada that both intensive and extensive reading are necessary to prepare students for the task and texts they encounter in college.

TBLT, which focuses on specific tasks, such as evaluated products in esl phd essay editor service canada contexts e. Furthermore, TBLT provides a principled approach to the determination of relevant content.

During the academic year at West Virginia University, eight classes of Spanish 4 students four classes per semester were involved in the study.

Experimental group students were tested to see if reading extensively for main meaning would read more reading and writing skills. Two different graduate assistants taught each semester; each assistant taught one experimental and control group.

Of all the classes involved, six met three times a week for 50 minutes, and two of the control groups met two times a week for an hour and 15 minutes. Esl phd essay editor service canada the nine week treatment period experimental students read and summarized esl phd essay editor service canada variety of interesting material see Esl phd essay editor service canada A during the first 15 minutes of each class.

Control groups spent first 15 minutes of class practicing productive skills involving speaking or writing.

Reading comprehension was measured using the Advanced Placement Spanish Language exam, which has a twenty-six item multiple-choice format. Writing complexity was evaluated by esl phd essay editor service canada pre and posttest mean T-Unit lengths. A repeated measures analysis of covariance revealed no significant differences in writing scores.

A seventeen-item Likert questionnaire, evaluated by means of a Chi-square test, showed that students thought reading helped reading and grammar skills.

There were no significant differences. More research is need to determine if a prolonged treatment period would yield better results in favor of extensive reading.

The study investigated the effect of audio-assisted reading on reading rates and comprehension. Sixty-four year secondary EFL students received a treatment of either silent reading SR or audio-assisted esl phd essay editor service canada AR over a week period for 90 min each week.

They read a total of 20 graded readers, 10 at level one and 10 at level two. A pre-test, a post-test, and a three-month delayed post-test were administered to all participants.

The test results show that both groups improved their reading rates and their comprehension levels, and the improvement was maintained for up to three months without further treatment. Reasons for the higher gains of the audio-assisted reading group are explained and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed.

EFL students read 26 passages five times each. Students answered comprehension questions esl phd essay editor service canada the first and fifth readings.

Another group read the same number of passages but without repetition and answered comprehension questions only once. Both groups were tested for reading rate and comprehension before and after the intervention. The results of reading rates showed that the repeated reading students increased 47 words and 45 words per minute in the practiced and unpracticed texts respectively, but the non-repeated students increased 13 and 7 words only.

Possible reasons for the higher gains compared to previous studies are discussed. She also emphasizes learning from and building upon current literacy practices in hire ghostwriters for esl us blog given context, rather than seeking to eliminate them and begin from scratch.

Extensive reading was an important part of this approach. Returning to these classrooms inthe author found that some of the positive changes of the s were now less visible. For instance, library corners did not always have the variety of books that once existed. The author cautions that und custom college creative essay topic bei increasing introduction of technology, well on its way in Singapore schools, should build on what is worthy from the past, rather than wiping it out and starting over.

It first describes what is known about the Singaporean reader. Esl phd essay editor service canada S[econdary] 1 students in Hong Kong to read is a challenge in view of their limited reading experience and vocabulary size and very often their low motivation esl phd essay editor service canada read in the context of an examination-oriented and predominantly skill-based English curriculum.

Proficient readers have shown language improvement in terms of understanding and writing. The results also suggest that high-interest unsimplified series have great pedagogical value in the teaching of reading and vocabulary development if it goes with a careful plan of implementation and supporting strategies.

Esl phd essay editor service canada important implication of the study is that high-interest unsimplified series are linguistically accessible and thematically exciting to be used to promote reading for pleasure among young readers.

Next, four female Korean immigrants to the U. The participant in the study had lived esl phd essay editor service canada the U. She was introduced to the Sweet Valley Kids series and told her reading would be voluntary, i.

Within one year, the participant did an impressive amount of reading - more than one million words - of that series and of more difficult material. At the same time, her L2 competence increased, based on the level of the books she read and on her estimation of her own proficiency level. Before the experience, few teachers reported that they did recreational reading in English.

After the experience, nearly all teachers reported that they were interested in using sustained silent reading in their classes, and were interested in reading more in English on their own. A single positive experience may not always be enough to stimulate a reading habit H. Kim and Krashen, Providing such experiences is not difficult, and the payoffs are potentially enormous, especially in foreign language situations where other sources of English input are scarce.

As electronic books continue to attract attention as a pedagogical tool in language classrooms, the impact that e-books are expected to have on higher education cannot be ignored. However, the effects of using e-books are esl phd essay editor service canada beneficial in extensive reading programs in many first- or second-language classrooms.

The different results may be due to different reading purposes. Twenty freshmen enrolled in a literature-based course participated in a semester-long e-book reading. The results showed that the students in this study generally valued the intangible nature of e-books. However, the e-book reading experience was still considered unpleasant to most of the participants in this study. Despite the overall negative perceptions of e-books, the students also demonstrated some improved attitudes toward reading e-books for an entire semester.

The findings indicate that when students are given time and opportunities to read e-books, they are likely to develop e-book reading habits and strategies. It would be a pity if we gave up providing students e-books merely because of their initial negative attitudes. A literature review on the effects of incorporating sustained silent reading SSR in class was given and the key features of successful SSR were examined. A general assumption about reading is that esl phd essay editor service canada improve their reading ability by reading a lot.

Students also develop more positive attitudes towards reading after the SSR programs. The effects are more prominent when the students are allowed to select their own reading materials and the SSR programs are run for 6 months or more. We investigated the relative efficacy of extensive reading ER and paired-associate learning PAL in the ability of second language L2 learners to retain new vocabulary words.

To that end, we combined behavioral measures i. Behavioral results indicated that both ER and PAL led to substantial short-term retention of the target words.

The converging evidence challenges the assumptions of some L2 researchers and makes a significant contribution to the literature of vocabulary acquisition, because it provides the first ERP evidence that ER is more conducive to long-term vocabulary retention than PAL. Accordingly, this chapter aims to examine the role and place of literature in the language classroom in different historical contexts, including Ancient Times, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Eighteenth century, the Nineteenth century, and, last but not least, the Twentieth century.

However, to give a range of perspectives to the studied phenomenon, the researcher did not hesitate to apply multiple research techniques and diverse sources of data.

By gathering data through a variety of means, the researcher, undertaking a qualitative research, was able to attend to various concerns with the varied quantitative data collection methods, making the research findings more robust.

Two passages from just click for source readers are compared with the original passages. The comparison uses a computer programme, RANGE Nation and Heatley, to analyse the distribution of high and low frequency words in the passages. By not making the simplified versus original text comparison in absolute terms, but in terms of the respective readers, it finds that patterns of use of structure, discourse markers, redundancy, collocations, and high and low frequency vocabulary, are similar in both original and simplification.

It is widely accepted in the ESOL field that Extensive Reading is good for ESOL learners and there are many studies purporting to show that this is true. As a result, the publication of Graded Readers in English today is a major commercial concern, although David Hillp.

Such a situation would not only be a huge waste in terms of resources; it could also lead to the alienation of generations of English learners from a potentially valuable means of improving and enjoying language learning. My study investigates this discrepancy by looking at the perceptions of the main stakeholders in Graded Readers, namely the publishers, the judges and academics, the teachers and the learners, to see how they differ and why. At the heart of the study are five case studies of learners, set against the backdrop of data gathered from all the stakeholders.

Publishing graded readers is big business, but there is evidence that the texts themselves are not being read in sufficient quantity to improve language proficiency.

This article reports on a study of graded readers, focusing on interviews with some major publishers of graded readers, to investigate their production rationales. The findings suggest that the opinions of the ultimate consumers, the learners, are not regularly researched, with publishers tending to base production more on the demands of teachers and librarians who buy the books.

The largest quantity of graded readers is produced for the intermediate levels, although if pleasure reading is the main purpose of graded readers, it would seem logical to publish a greater number of texts at the lowest level, to inculcate good reading habits from esl phd essay editor service canada start.

Among the suggestions given for setting up such a library are: survey students about their reading preferences; provide short introductions to the books and a worksheet to guide students in selecting suitable books; establish a procedure for recording which books just click for source are reading and which ones they like, but avoid post-reading tasks that make reading a chore; and have a student library monitor to help maintain the collection.

However, significant diversity in scientific preparation and aptitude and in language proficiency was still found in the course population, both undergraduate and graduate.

The courses have since been designed for a broad target group, with emphasis placed on translation from Spanish to English and limited English-to-Spanish translation practice. The course content includes fundamental technological and scientific terminology in a variety of fields mathematics, physics and subfields, chemistry, biology, and automotive and computer technology.

The methodology used involves extensive readings, vocabulary review, translation, oral reports, and examinations. Instructional materials at varying linguistic levels and from a variety of fields are used. Student evaluations of the course have indicated satisfaction with the amount of learning in varied fields and with their newly acquired ability to translate technical texts.

Course outlines are appended. Coady proposes that this dilemma can be overcome in two stages. First, learners should be given explicit instruction and practice in the 3, most common words in the language, to the point of automaticity.

Second, they should then be allowed to engage in reading tasks they find enjoyable. Init seems safe to say that. And yet it is not clear that the computer for. This is a pity. Computer programs, accessing large shared text. Some parts of this paper take the form of a response to. Krashen, a noted proponent of "buying books, not computers" if it. I hope to esl phd essay editor service canada the reader that books and. Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language L2 reading instruction.

One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner.

The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner.

The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with esl phd essay editor service canada, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

Cobb argues that free reading cannot provide L2 readers with sufficient opportunities for just click for source vocabulary in order to reach an adequate level of reading comprehension of English texts.

The length of the period of study by the majority of pupils is a major. Investigations in teaching children to read the mother tongue provide. Pupils must therefore be quickly weaned. It is just that, for all but.

The teaching of fluent reading must be based on an understanding of the. Children learn to read by reading and they learn better. The best results are obtained from material adapted to the age, the. Extensive reading is an important factor in increasing the speed of. The pedagogical principle is that "teaching directly for the results.

Hundreds of pages are. After two years pupils can. The first value to be gained by studying foreign languages is the power. By establishing one-way communication. The project studied the effect of additional reading instruction with emphasis on reading for pleasure.

Series of graded readers were made available to students in the experimental group who were asked to turn in short reports on which they received teacher feedback. An average of 15 hours of after school reading was completed by students in the experimental group.

Student achievement was evaluated via the short form of the English Language Skills Assessment ELSAa multiple-choice cloze test, a dictation test, the Spew test vocabularyand a self-assessment measure. The difference between control and experimental groups was not significant. This page booklet has. But just as a measure of power helps society to work, so a. There are lists of structures and words allowed at each level of.

The experiment, with elementary school students in gradeswas carried out for 15 weeks with the amount of time reading varying from grade to grade, ranging from 10 to 30 minutes per day.

Intact classes at each level were randomly assigned to the experimental or control esl phd essay editor service canada. The results showed that the experimental groups had progressed mit cheap admission paper ghostwriters websites canada sind of a book further, which was significant at the.

Those students who switched to pleasure reading seemed to make rapid improvement, whereas those who refused to switch esl phd essay editor service canada pleasure reading reportedly experienced little improvement.

The class emphasized student-selected pleasure reading, supplemented with teacher-supplied magazine post blog help anthropology me write. Students began the course wishing to use traditional methods to improve their reading, such as looking up unknown words and asking about grammar.

Students were not tested on their reading nor were they asked to write book reports. Instead, students wrote and responded esl phd essay editor service canada questions about the texts they had read, or, optionally wrote journal entries.

As the course progressed, more and more students wrote journal entries and the length of these entries increased. The author concludes, "Pleasure reading gave the results that essay professional proofreading university site sf, as reading and language teachers, want: language development in terms of reading, writing, and comprehension, and confidence. The goal was accomplished in an environment that was fun, relaxing, and interesting for all involved.

Despite the fact that subjects reported little reading in English, this variable was a significant predictor of TOEFL test performance. In addition, English study in the esl phd essay editor service canada country and length of esl phd essay editor service canada in the US were also related to TOEFL scores.

Although extensive reading is now recognised as an important element of language instruction, it appears that EFL students specialising in business studies do little reading in English beyond course requirements. This study illustrates the findings of a survey of reading frequency and attitudes related to extensive reading in English.

A questionnaire administered to Italian EFL students at the University of Florence showed that even if frequency of reading in English is quite low, attitude towards it is clearly favourable.

In addition, multiple regression analysis was used to determine potentially influential factors. Reading in Italian and experience abroad were significantly correlated with both reading frequency and attitude.

The correlation between past access to English books and reading attitude approached the significance level. A negative correlation was found instead between the number of years of past English study and reading attitude. These findings are useful for defining appropriate instructional actions and identifying areas for further research, with the esl phd essay editor service canada of more effectively promoting extensive reading in English.

While a significant negative correlation was found between willingness to read and number of years of previous study. However, the cause of reported correlations are not known; past reading might be dependent upon a third unknown construct. The inferences made by the author are based on self-declared past reading frequency, and while the presence of reliability figures might assist the researcher argue that their inferences are valid, no such figures were reported. McLean] Texts are routinely simplified to make them more comprehensible for second language learners.

However, the effects of simplification upon the linguistic features of texts remain largely unexplored. Here we examine the effects of one type of text simplification: intuitive text simplification.

We use the computational tool, Coh-Metrix, to examine linguistic differences between proficiency levels of a corpus of news texts that had been simplified to three levels of simplification beginner, intermediate, advanced.

The main analysis reveals significant differences between levels for a wide range of linguistic features, particularly between beginner and advanced levels. The results show that lower level texts are generally less lexically and syntactically sophisticated than higher-level texts. The analysis also reveals that lower level texts contain more cohesive features than higher-level texts. The analysis also provides strong evidence that these linguistic features can be used to classify levels of simplified reading texts.

Overall, the findings support the notion that intuitively simplified texts at the beginning level contain more linguistic features related to comprehensible input than intuitively simplified texts at the advanced level. The opinions of second esl phd essay editor service canada learning L2 theorists and researchers are divided over whether to use authentic or simplified reading texts as the means of input for beginning- and intermediate-level L2 learners.

Advocates of both approaches cite the use of linguistic features, syntax, and discourse structures as important elements in support of esl phd essay editor service canada arguments, but there has been no conclusive study that measures these differences and their implications for L2 learning. The purpose of this article is to provide an exploratory study that fills this gap. Using the computational tool Coh-Metrix, this study investigates the differences between the linguistic structures of sampled simplified texts and those of authentic reading texts in order to provide a better understanding of the linguistic features that comprise these text types.

The findings demonstrate that these texts differ significantly, but not always in the manner supposed by the authors of relevant scholarship. This research is meant to enable materials developers, publishers, and classroom teachers to judge more accurately the value of both authentic and simplified texts. The paper then identifies the main problem areas in implementation and describes the broad approaches used to address them.

Finally some conclusions are reached in the light of our experiences, which may have implications for the design and implementation of similar programmes. The authors examine various cultural patterns of the interactions of the characters in Malaysian and Philippine English novels written by local writers.

These literary texts, as they highlight, provide an overview of Malaysian and Philippine cultures in a number of speech acts, which are further thoroughly discussed. The authors conclude that such exposure to various discourse norms can lead to a more successful communication.

As the author further highlights, findings such as these emphasize the importance of choosing reading texts which are aligned to known schema, so as to facilitate decoding. However, while useful, as she points out, such findings present reading teachers with a paradox, because if cultural unknowns are a sure source of misunderstanding Allergien best phd essay editor for hire for phd vor the reading classroom, then it can be argued that only texts that deal with known aspects of culture should be used in that classroom.

This, on the other hand, would prevent learners from learning about the unknown. The author begins this chapter by esl phd essay editor service canada that "Simplicity is difficult". He goes on to describe some of the article source involved in simplification of language and its relation to authenticity. In conclusion he states, "In teaching our concern is with simplification, not with authenticity.

Everything the learner understands is authentic for him. Http:// is the teacher who simplifies, the learner who authenticates. The Edinburgh Project in Extensive Reading EPER has done much to promote the aims and methods of extensive reading, and has successfully developed programmes in countries with such varied learning contexts as Malaysia, Tanzania, Hong Kong, and the Maldives.

And yet, it seems that ERPs have not been adopted as readily as they might have been. These students were enrolled in sixth-semester introductory foreign language literature courses.

About two-thirds of respondents reported a positive attitude toward literature study. Variables found to be significantly related to attitude toward literature study were amount of leisure reading done in the L2, role of literature in the home, and preferred learning style. The authors recommend that reading instruction allow students to give their own interpretations of what they read and that Sustained Silent Reading in which students select what they read be done once or twice a week.

This article contains practical suggestions for running an extensive reading programme. The author concludes by emphasizing two points: the need for careful planning, and the value of time spent on extensive reading. As it is under the of the individual.

In contrast, intensive reading is like weight training with a personal. They are encouraged to read easy and interesting books and to stop reading a book if it is too hard, too easy, or boring. Generally, students do not answer comprehension questions click to see more the books they have read.

This article shows how this can be done by suggesting two writing activities that are designed to help students improve their writing and, at the same time, allow them to demonstrate their understanding of the books they have read. Extensive reading ER has been demonstrated to help students continue reading English as esl phd essay editor service canada foreign language EFL in many aspects of English.

However, EFL teachers interested in using ER in their classrooms may not understand how to do this since it differs in many critical respects from other ways of teaching and learning English. In this article, I discuss how teachers can set up and conduct successful ER programs. The April issue of Reading in a Foreign Language featured a discussion forum on extensive reading ER. Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of Esl phd essay editor service canada, particularly in here and conducting ER programs.

The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice of and the research concerning ER since and to offer possible directions for the practice of ER. I begin with a discussion of the nature of extensive reading.

This is followed by a presentation and discussion of a survey of the practice of ER and the research findings from to the present. Based on the results of the survey das custom bibliography writers sites for masters aus the practice ER, an extensive reading continuum is proposed.

The discussion closes with a look ahead at what the practice of ER might look like. Part 1 consists of 13 activities for extensive reading, including ones by authors of other works in this bibliography, such as Bamford and Mason. The article begins with an explanation of what extensive reading is, the materials to be used, and the benefits that can derived from incorporating extensive reading in L2 instruction.

The first part is the more theoretical, beginning with an explanation of what extensive reading ER and various related terms, such as free voluntary reading, mean. The authors argue esl phd essay editor service canada the use of what they call language learner literature, works written or rewritten especially for language learners, e. Day and Bamford go on to illustrate what is involved in creating good language learner literature.

The last and longest part of the book describes the nuts and bolts of running ER programmes, including setting pay to get popular rhetorical analysis essay on civil war the programme, finding and organising the materials, orienting the students to the programme, creating an on-going community of readers, evaluating the esl phd essay editor service canada, and, last but not least, the role of the teacher.

They conclude by emphasising that although successful ER programmes differ in many regards, they all have one element in common: teachers who put their heart, soul, and mind into making the programme a success. Reviews of this volume. Review by Willy A. Review by Kyle Perkins Modern Language Journal Vol 83 1 During the process of first language development, children learn new vocabulary incidentally from listening and reading situations.

While it has been claimed that the same is true check this out second language learners, there is a paucity of empirical evidence. This paper reports the results of an investigation whose purpose was to determine if Japanese EFL students could learn vocabulary incidentally while reading silently esl phd essay editor service canada entertainment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated that such esl phd essay editor service canada vocabulary learning did occur for both high school and university students.

Numerous studies have reported that extensive reading ER has a positive influence on affect. Recent studies suggest that ER changes motivation. This study presents a model of complex and dynamic motivation for ER. This qualitative study examined the motivation for ER of nine learners of Japanese as a foreign language. Data from interviews and journal for phd essay best custom service editing were analyzed for factors influencing their motivation.

Implications concern the importance of varied materials and of making ER obligatory. Reading is thought to be a crucial skill in the EFL learning process, and Extensive Reading a very useful strategy.

However, very few teachers implement it on a regular basis. The process of introducing Extensive Reading ER is considered far too expensive, complicated, and time-consuming.

One way to encourage its use would be click here more deeply understand the multiple factors influencing its successful implementation.

This paper considers two of these factors, one related to effectiveness and the other to attitude. The study uses quantitative as well as qualitative data from students in the first year of a scientific reading course in a Venezuelan university.

Findings suggest that reading comprehension performance was essentially the same with or without esl cover letter editing for hire sf Extensive Reading Program. Nonetheless, the program did seem to positively impact participating students. The ER Group did significantly better in the post-test than in the pre-test.

Besides being enjoyable, they felt it helped them build vocabulary, reading comprehension, reading skills and confidence. This study used self-report data to examine what participants esl phd essay editor service canada was most helped them gain a high level of proficiency in English.

Participants were 48 non-native English speakers from a variety of esl phd essay editor service canada who were full-time faculty members at U. They completed a questionnaire that asked them about their formal and informal experiences in learning English and asked them to rate the utility of the various types of experience and to make recommendations as to what might most help current ESL learners.

While results are not unambiguous, the researcher interprets the findings as supportive of an emphasis on language use and on participating in experiences that promote unconscious acquisition, esl phd essay editor service canada than a focus on language usage and on working toward conscious learning of English.

The two types of exposure ranked least useful are formal ESL classes prior to and during university, while the two highest ranked are using English as a teacher or professor and as a student in regular university classes. In another table, free reading was ranked as the most helpful out-of-class activity. Among the many techniques and places on the Internet which Derewianka advises students and teachers to explore are: Keypals, the Internet equivalent of penpals; Chatrooms, where the fingers do the talking and the eyes do the listening; Learning Networks, which link students and teachers working together on a particular task or project; and Discussion Lists and Newsgroups, global forums for people with like interests to share ideas.

Children took the bags home to read the book with their family, play with the toy, and write in the journal. The bags circulated among the class, with each new borrower adding an entry to the journal.

These texts then were shared with fellow students. Among the suggested benefits of reading such books are their modern themes, fast pace, relatively short page length, uncomplicated plots, and contemporary language. Sources of recommended titles are provided. Dupuy and McQuillan provide guidelines for the writing, illustrating, and publishing of the Handcrafted Books, as well as an example book.

It is an approach which exposes students to a great variety of texts which they self-select and read during their free time. After briefly reviewing the literature on free reading, and outlining the rationale for its use, the author reports the reactions of two intermediate foreign language classes to the free reading approach, as well as their opinions regarding the impact of this approach on developing the language they study.

Looking for a way to bring students to read voluntarily in esl phd essay editor service canada second language and enjoy it? This article discusses a reading approach through which students are exposed to many books which they self-select and discuss in their literature circles, and reports the reactions of 49 French students towards this approach. By examining the preferences of 49 intermediate-level just click for source of French as a foreign language concerning two classroom activities grammar instruction and practice, and extensive reading this study replicates and expands a previous study McQuillan, by surveying students studying a different language, and presenting the reasons behind their choice.

Similar to McQuillanstudents in this study overwhelmingly found extensive reading to be not only more pleasurable but also more beneficial for language acquisition than grammar instruction and practice. Students explained that while reading was fun, interesting, and beneficial for language acquisition, grammar instruction and practice was dull and esl phd essay editor service canada, and its effects small and short-lived.

In this paper, the author reports on an alternative reading approach for the intermediate foreign language class.

It is an approach through which students are exposed to a great variety of books that they self select and discuss esl phd essay editor service canada their literature circles.

After discussing the general principles of esl phd essay editor service canada circles, the author will proceed to discuss how this approach can be implemented in the classroom.

Third semester college students of French in one intact class saw the first five scenes of Trois homes et un couffin and read the next five scenes in class. They were then surprised with a vocabulary test that contained highly colloquial words that were in the texts.

Subjects performed significantly better than control subjects who were enrolled in another 3rd-semester Esl phd essay editor service canada class as well as controls enrolled in a more advanced class, confirming that incidental vocabulary acquisition is possible in a foreign language situation. A conservative estimate of their rate of vocabulary acquisition was about.

Rate of incidental vocabulary acquisition may have been underestimated, however, because the text was difficult, only 30 words were tested, and only eight of the 30 words appeared in the film. These stories could be original or retellings. Students were advised not to use dictionaries in order that the texts they created would not be too difficult for their peers. These books were organized into a library. The article describes an extensive reading program that tried to overcome student reluctance to read for pleasure.

First, students were informed of research that suggests extensive reading can greatly enhance SLA. Next, the authors helped students understand the difference between intensive and extensive reading.

The authors also assisted students in choosing books by such means as surveys of student interests, booktalks, book displays, and book lists. The authors recommend that in keeping with the link between extensive reading and learner initiative, students negotiate how they will be graded for their extensive reading course.

The database thus consolidates the various series from various publishers into one overall system of levels. Database entries also include such information as recommended reader age adult, secondary, primarygenre, regional setting, sex of the main protagonist, and a quality rating on a 5-point scale.

At different times, it has been possible to order directly from EPER Booklists drawn from the database. A version of the Recommended Titles Booklist appears as an appendix to Day and Bamford, Part 1 begins with a discussion of what extensive reading is and its benefits to students.

Other topics in Part 1 include finding suitable materials for extensive reading and descriptions of programmes in a variety of countries. It goes into detail on programme management, including class readers and library readers, storage and security source books, official endorsement, training of staff, monitoring, and evaluation.

This study employs a quasi-factorial design with a pretest and posttest non-equivalence group design. The subjects of the study were the second semester students of STAIN Curup, Bengkulu [Indonesia] in academic year In analyzing the data collected, the research used Multivariate Analysis of Covariance. This research reveals the following findings.

The study also found that the pre- and postreading interest differed significantly for some books, and that prior knowledge likely was a contributing factor in some perceptions of interest. Five critical differences between first and second language learning were identified and discussed. It was hypothesized that the effect of these differences in formal education could be virtually eliminated by means of a reading program based on the use of an abundance of high-interest illustrated story books.

A sample of Class 4 and 5 pupils from eight rural Fijian schools with very few books was selected, and each class was provided with high-interest story books in English. The 16 participating teachers were given directions in two different methods of encouraging the pupils to read the books. Pre- and posttests were given to all pupils and to matched control groups of pupils who followed the normal structured English language program, which puts little emphasis on reading.

Dissertation abstract writer australia results after eight months showed that pupils exposed to many stories progressed in reading and listening comprehension at twice the normal rate, and confirmed the hypothesis that high-interest story reading has an important esl phd essay editor service canada to play in second language learning.

After 20 months, the gains had increased further and spread to related language skills. Next, data are presented indicating that the cloze procedure may be valid for assessing L1 and L2 reading. The author then explains why he supports two changes to the teaching of reading in Fiji: more books in schools and an instructional approach that encourages students to read much more.

Instead of books chosen for their controlled esl phd essay editor service canada of selected grammatical structures, he suggests a reading programme based on high interest stories in order to encourage reading by primary school students. In contrast to students learning by means of structured, programs, those children who are exposed to an extensive range of high-interest illustrated story books, and encouraged to read and share them, are consistently found to learn the target language more quickly.

When immersed in meaningful esl phd essay editor service canada, without tight controls over syntax and vocabulary, children appear to learn the language incidentally, and to develop positive attitudes toward books. In some cases, the benefits esl phd essay editor service canada found to spread to other subjects and languages.

Implications are drawn for language policy in developing countries and some support is established for such concepts as "comprehensible input" and "whole language" approaches to language acquisition in schools. Data were collected in andinvolvingstudents and 10, teachers from 32 education systems from all over the world. The chapter focuses on those findings of particular relevance to developing countries, where the language of school is not the native language of many of the students.

One promising strategy which has been tried and evaluated in the schools of several developing countries is the Book Flood approach. This article summarises the findings of Book Flood studies in Niue, Fiji, Singapore, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Solomon Islands, and several other countries. The evidence is now strong that it is esl phd essay editor service canada to double the rate of reading acquisition of Third World primary school pupils with a "Book Flood" of about high-interest esl phd essay editor service canada, per class, and short teacher training sessions.

Such skills are typically found to develop very slowly under traditional textbook styles of teaching. The problems of cost per school and cultural suitability of imported books are esl phd essay editor service canada. Several countries have adopted Book Flood programmes on a esl phd essay editor service canada scale, and others are currently planning to do so. In many countries of the world, English is learned formally by pupils as a second or foreign language.

Much of the instruction in schools is aimed at teaching one English structure at a time, in the belief that the learners will be able to put these discretely learnt structures together in real communicative situations. That learning for communication is slow and for the amount of time devoted to it relatively unproductive and often bereft of any enjoyment is not surprising.

In the schools of the South Pacific, the situation is not different. In this report, the authors explore an alternative, more enjoyable approach to promoting the acquisition of English at the primary school level.

Children in rural schools of Fiji were here esl phd essay editor service canada a variety of high-interest illustrated story books and encouraged to read and discuss them regularly.

The results were positive and cheap phd essay writers services online encouraging to give new hope to pupils and teachers of English in many contexts, and to provide sound empirical support for the contribution of reading to general growth. This handbook gives a full treatment of a story-based approach, addressing both theoretical background and practical activities relating to actual stories.

It highlights the fact that a story-based approach can take the learner well beyond the improvement of English structural knowledge, to reach into cross-curricular areas including values education. The remaining approximately pages present guides for teaching 18 different books. The guides include explanatory notes and a range of activities focusing both on content and on language.

Participants were late adult learners of English as an L2, with a relatively advanced level of English proficiency. They completed tests measuring their WM capacity, explicit knowledge, implicit knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationships between L2 WM capacity and both explicit and implicit L2 knowledge. Exploratory factor analysis showed that explicit knowledge, WM capacity, and L2 reading comprehension loaded on a single factor whereas implicit L2 knowledge formed an independent factor with no relationship to L2 reading.

The results suggest that L2 WM is able to manipulate and store both explicit and implicit L2 input through controlled and automatic processes. Furthermore, the differences between spoken and written forms of language mean that development of proficiency in the spoken form of a language will not be sufficient in promoting proficiency with the written form.

The article goes on to review work by Goodman and others on the reading process, before suggesting a model reading program. This involves both intensive and extensive reading, "moving back and forth between close in-class analysis and the synthesis that reading esl phd essay editor service canada quantity provides". Reading labs, stocked with graded readers, provide one means of providing this quantity.

Unless students can somehow be induced to develop a serious interest in some kind of reading that leads to a long-term reading habit, all talk of teaching reading becomes meaningless. Eskey contends that it is necessary for an educator to understand the reader in each of these three aspects. He then addresses the question: How do people learn to read and to read better, especially in a second or foreign language?

To become skillful readers, apprentice readers must read a lot; Engaging in extensive reading behavior is a prerequisite for developing reading skills. In these ways the teacher motivates and facilitates reading.

It focuses on the results and experiences of a research project which led to the trialling of a HyperCard program entitled Nicolas incorporating text, graphics and sound, for use mainly with year-old students of French. The aim of the research was to investigate the extent to which extensive reading skills might be supported and developed by esl phd essay editor service canada use of such applications.

Can hypermedia provide a useful bridge between the communicative diet of the early stages of foreign language learning and the interpretive skills required at advanced level?

The discussion tackles the issue of the apparent contradiction between the serial nature of the reading process and the non-sequential navigational structure of hypertexts, and looks in particular at the role of glossaries, and interactive tasks which are interspersed throughout the program. The author presents what amounts to an elaborated step-by-step ER lesson plan with multiple components and options for using literature to introduce and guide students into ER.

While sustained silent reading in class has undoubted benefits, there are several reasons why it is not always appropriate, both philosophically and practically. This paper will briefly esl phd essay editor service canada some of these reasons, arguing that output activities have been unfairly dismissed.

The key themes of "accountability" having students demonstrate what they have read and "variety" avoiding tedious repetition esl phd essay editor service canada the ER classroom are promoted as essential principles in ER materials development. Ten examples of these materials are demonstrated and explained.

As EFL programs become more prevalent throughout the world, the cultural implications of English teaching are more often debated. These cultural considerations are extremely relevant in Islamic cultures, where English education can be viewed as contributing to the influence of Western Christian or secular pedagogy. This potential clash of approaches to teaching and learning should be critically addressed by EFL instructors.

One method of doing so is introducing reading instruction with critical best for phd thesis websites writer. The article will illustrate how critical pedagogy and critical literacy instruction were implemented in a reading program in Dushanbe, Tajikistan.

As a former member of the Soviet Union, the system of education in Tajikistan was developed with Soviet, atheistic ideals of education which clashed with those of local students and teachers. Thus, a critical approach to facilitating English reading esl phd essay editor service canada was introduced to allow students to mold the curriculum and discussions in ways that reflected their diverse cultural values. The rationale for text selection and judging culturally relevant texts will be addressed as a model for other ELF [sic] programs and practitioners.

Specifically, the researchers explored:. Challenges faced by Tajikistan students when using authentic English novels for ER. Discussions and debates about the novels being read were a feature of the ER program, with some of the discussion being student-led.

Furthermore, the instructor guided students to connect the texts to click here own lives and the wider world. Data were collected over eight weeks via such means as student reflections, observations by the instructor and two local observers, interviews with the students, and the connections students had written about.

Overall results were positive, and the researchers make recommendations for how similar programs might be cheap phd personal sample. She suggests that written or oral summaries are indispensable for both students and teachers since these activities link reading with other parts of language learning and can also be applied for evaluation.

However, the researcher believes esl phd essay editor service canada two conditions must be met, namely: 1 writing summaries should not exceed reading activities; and 2 teacher correction of mistakes in those summaries should be limited to a minimum in order not to discourage students from reading. The author argues for the necessity of using easy books, or graded readers, for weak readers in particular, comments on activities in her ER class, and explains the results of questionnaires given to students.

The feedback from her students and her own experience as an EFL learner has convinced her that a content-centred approach and level-appropriate reading materials can positively influence student motivation, and that integration of carefully designed ER courses into the EFL curriculum of secondary schools is of utmost importance for students to build strong reading skills, confidence, and a love for reading. Students enjoy reading graded readers, and reading circles serve to relocate extensive reading materials from the periphery of the language classroom to its centre.

Reading circles combine the skills of reading, writing, speaking, and listening. They provide two things often lacking in many communication courses: esl phd essay editor service canada that is both comprehensible and interesting to talk about, and a framework which makes having a real discussion in English an achievable goal for students.

This article defines reading circles, discusses the benefits of using them in the classroom, and introduces the reading circles roles. Finally, it also explains how to get started using reading circles in the classroom so that students can have interesting, meaningful discussions, in English This paper reports how our current ninth graders raised their reading level as esl phd essay editor service canada by their performance on a nationwide test for Japanese high school students The results of the ACE exam strongly suggest that ER has helped the eighth graders reach a level of English comparable to students two years their senior As the ACE test is well known among high school teachers in Japan, it is hoped it will show those teachers who are not familiar with ER the dramatic results that can occur if they add an extensive reading component to their English classes.

The role of extensive reading in building vocabulary continues to receive considerable attention in first and second language research and pedagogy. Results of a computerized analysis of nearly 1. Further exploration of the lexical data indicates high numbers of register-specific words at all levels of vocabulary, particularly at the more specialized levels where the potential esl phd essay editor service canada protracted vocabulary growth is the greatest.

A subsequent discussion addresses qualitative differences in the characteristics of these exclusive narrative and expository types. The collections, distinguished by relative thematic tightness, authorship 1 vs. Findings indicated that thematic relationships impacted specialized vocabulary recycling within expository collections primarily content wordswhereas authorship impacted recycling within narrative collections primarily names of characters, places, etc.

Theme-based expository collections also contained much higher percentages of theme-related words than their theme-based narrative counterparts. The findings were used to give nuance to the vocabulary-recycling claims of narrow reading and to more general theories and practices involving wide and extensive reading.

Twenty-eight writers produced 64 English language books for Malaysian students in the third and fourth years of primary school. Students were then asked to rate these books. The 20 top-rated books were published and distributed to schools in various parts of the country for further rating by pupils. Further, females and males rated the books about the same, except for one book about choosing dresses that was more popular with females.

Very brief summaries are provided of the twenty books that students especially liked. The author begins by emphasizing the crucial nature of affective variables in reading, not only in determining attitude toward reading but also for increasing comprehension.

In addition to attitude, these affective variables include motivation, beliefs, perceived task control, and perceived competence. Suggestions for enhancing affect include: open tasks in which students have opportunities for choice, challenge, control in continue reading and planning, collaboration, connecting to the world beyond the classroom, understanding of why they are doing the task, and self-evaluation; ways of making easy books acceptable and difficult books accessible; allowing students to choose what they read and helping them to learn how to choose wisely; and a low-risk environment in which teachers act as facilitators and role models rather than evaluators, classmates are supportive, and time and space is provided for students to read and to share with one another about their esl phd essay editor service canada. The teaching of English as a foreign language in primary schools is gaining popularity throughout the world.

Many countries are esl phd essay editor service canada using English in the upper grades as the vehicular language for all or part of the general curriculum. It is therefore important to identify the types of materials that best prepare pupils for academic work in L2.

The traditional structurally-based texts and the newer, integrated, communicative courses might not be sufficient for the demands of the academic classes. This is an important consideration at a time when our world is becoming smaller, yet increasingly hostile. According to the authors, the development meiner best personal essay writing sites canada chirurgische reading fluency has taken a position of growing importance in L2 reading research and has emerged as a significant pedagogical issue.

Therefore, they do not hesitate to conclude with a firm statement that L2 learners using RR will benefit from increased fluency and comprehension, which will transfer to new, unpractised passages during their extensive reading sessions. Results indicated that the learner Grabe made dramatic progress in vocabulary knowledge, reading comprehension, and listening comprehension The authors conclude that extensive reading is a very effective way to develop vocabulary knowledge and other language abilities over time.

The authors outline central concepts underlying academic reading and their implications for instruction. They then highlight issues concerning the development of reading curricula including the analysis of needs and choosing appropriate texts and materials. They describe specific practices that build coherent and effective here curricula.

They also offer a list esl phd essay editor service canada ideal conditions for extensive reading. Under approach, two claims made that are relevant to extensive reading are "Reading requires practice--time on task" and "Reading requires purpose--motivation interest, need ". Under design, the author discusses how extensive reading provides what he calls a "Critical Mass of Knowledge" of both language and of the esl phd essay editor service canada. This critical mass supports reading as well as overall L2 proficiency.

Thus, extensive reading is part of the design for reading instruction at all proficiency levels, including elementary. By reading such materials, students are more likely to develop effective reading habits. Seventh, and finally, students need to. Longer concentrated periods of silent reading build. In short, students learn to read by reading" p. On the basis of research in both L1 and L2 reading contexts, ten implications read more L2 reading instruction are established, one of which is extensive reading.

Grabe contends that "[g]iven that reading efficiency is dependent on rapid and automatic word recognition and a large recognition vocabulary, extensive exposure to L2 texts through reading is the only learning option available to L2 students"p.

Below is a relevant excerpt. There are no miracles or short-cuts in learning to read even if the process of reading comprehension itself is somewhat miraculous.

The researchers highlight the relatively high correlation between extracurricular extensive reading and TOEFL score, and the lack of a direct correlation with TOEFL scores of hours of formal instruction and quantity of oral language use. When multiple regression analysis was conducted, "[O]utside reading emerged as the most important, indeed the only, factor with a significant effect on TOEFL scores. This article argues that while extensive reading per se is an important medium for long-term second language acquisition, extensive reading schemes may not be the most effective means of promoting acquisition.

This argument springs from the disappointing results of the implementation of the Hong Kong Extensive Reading Scheme in English, which are described in the article. The article presents the view that extensive reading is too important an activity to be confined within the hermetic bounds of a scheme. Instead, it is argued, extensive reading should be incorporated fully in the language curriculum as a vital component of a task-based approach to second language learning.

Extensive reading is an approach to teaching reading that click at this page been. A description of our implementation of. By describing a program that exposes. What are learner esl phd essay editor service canada to this approach? Are reading gains attained by learners who are exposed to this.

These are divided into pre-reading, while reading, after reading, and a section on "changing frame" with activities in which students are asked to view the text from a different perspective. For instance, if the class is reading Silas Marner, they could try to see the story from the point of view of an adoption committee, charged with deciding to whom to grant adoption rights.

An eight-lesson sample scheme of work esl phd essay editor service canada also provided. This report explores the language learning opportunities provided by.

Extensive Reading ER for ESOL students. It includes a literature. In addition, it reports on an. A three-month extensive reading programme using graded readers was set up involving one experimental group and two control groups of ESL in the UK.

The results showed a marked improvement in the performance of the experimental subjects, especially in terms of their writing skills. A custom literature review ghostwriter website for college of recommendations are made regarding the setting up of extensive reading programmes.

Results show significant gains in both fluency and accuracy of expression, though not in botany essay writing services of structures used. The results are discussed with reference esl phd essay editor service canada a related study by the same authors in an ESL context in the UK. While extensive reading was done alongside intensive reading and the other usual features of the modern language course, "[t]he essential departure from the methods employed in most college courses was in shifting the emphasis of the course completely away from grammar, and emphatically over to reading" p.

In esl phd essay editor service canada with the precepts "the individual is the unit of instruction" and "we learn by doing," esl phd essay editor service canada in pursuit of oral and reading proficiency, first year students begin reading very easy texts extensively from the first.

If in the first four to six weeks, the content of the reading material is very familiar, it links the unknown the new language to the known the content. If the reading material is interesting and not difficult, a reading habit is established, and the usual "fatigue and discouragement so often connected with modern language courses" p. Students are also required to cheap critical essay writing ca and arrange vocabulary, "the indispensable basis for reading p.

As we learn esl phd essay editor service canada to esl phd essay editor service canada by swimming and to ride by riding, so we must learn to read German by reading German, by reading every day without a single exception, by reading conscientiously and systematically. Every page we read means a definite amount of progress, every book well read makes the foreign language appear simpler and easier.

The earlier we begin to read, the more rapid will be our progress. The more we have read at the end of a course, the better is our equipment for further successful study. Extensive reading causes to pass link our consciousness an endless chain of words, clauses, idioms and sentences, and at the same time an endless wave of sounds and rhythms.

In studying a foreign language we vocalize innerly, pronounce mentally Through this continual inner speaking we win something which intensive reading and the careful study of grammar can produce but very slowly. The results of reading at least pages first quarterpages second quarter and pages third quarter include the "development of a feeling for the foreign language, greater ease in overcoming grammatical difficulties, and a more natural building up of an adequate vocabulary" p.

In general, the students who read the most did the best and were promoted to higher classes faster. The purpose of this article is to follow up these two groups through their third quarter, to state in terms of the American Council Alpha German Test how far they progressed, and by what means their progress was effected. The number of pages read came to an average of about 1, pages per student, or pages more than esl phd essay editor service canada. A esl phd essay editor service canada reading list and three examples of student book reports are given.

It suggests that the result of high esl phd essay editor service canada as well as college teaching can be raised considerably. Reading ability should be the first aim, and this aim would make reading the main practice in most courses.

In Part I called "General principles in. Part II The grading of reading material explains that extensive. As there is no scientific analysis of. In this way, 20 books have been ranked in order from most.

When read in this sequence, they offer no. Part III Types of reading tests describes various question types. Part IV Correlation between. The study reports the responses of secondary English teachers on different aspects of using extensive reading tasks in the EFL classrooms of Bangladeshi junior secondary schools. It is found that though the teachers of Bangladesh express positive beliefs about the benefits of extensive reading, the techniques they follow in their classrooms at present mostly encourage intensive here. A combination of initiatives such as teacher training, awareness-raising, curriculum reform and changing existing assessment formats can promote the practices of extensive reading activities among secondary school learners.

Esl research writing sites courses in English for academic purposes concentrate on teaching traditional reading comprehension skills at the intensive level, and do not offer help to the students with the area of reading which frequently causes the non-native student the greatest difficulty in his English-medium university courses: the sheer volume of reading required, which often overwhelms the foreign university student.

At Universiti Sains Malaysia there was a particular need for a course which would help students to develop extensive reading strategies and offer them sufficient opportunity to practice these in a controlled situation. The course which was developed used overhead transparencies keyed to a tape recording in the skill development stages, and proceeded to real university textbooks. At WESL Institute of Western Illinois University, the concept of a course in extensive reading skills was retained, as was the use of the overhead projector as a presentation technique, but the course which was developed was rather different, as a response to differing student needs and as a result of background research into psycholinguistic theories of the reading process, coupled with esl phd essay editor service canada gained from the use of the first course.

In this paper, I will try to show how ER in a second and foreign language has become a useful and motivating way of language teaching. In the second part, I will briefly define ER and explain the theoretical frame of ER, major characteristics of ER, and benefits of ER. Third, I will point out the connection between ER and writing activities, which is very helpful for language learners to improve their language proficiency. Finally, I will discuss effective ways of instruction which combining ER and writing program in Help with literature Korea.

The first, "Adapting Work to Individual Differences," suggests that simultaneous class instruction produces both students who cannot keep up, and students able to go faster.

These individual differences can be catered for by dividing the class into two ability groups, esl phd essay editor service canada with a student leader, and giving clear assignments to each.

The faster group that finishes its assignment first may then profitably do an extra assignment, while the slower group is able to study its assignment more thoroughly without the pressure of keeping up with the "better" pupils. There is a report of an experiment in second and third year university German classes.

After the first few weeks, classes were divided into two groups. Three groups esl phd essay editor service canada also tried but proved too many for a teacher to supervise.

The additional assignment of extensive reading is defined in the following way. There is "five or ten or fifteen pages of reading in an additional text. This is extensive reading, which [students] are instructed to read over twice at least, in order to learn the vocabulary and to be able to retell it in the foreign language" p.

The experiment was a success. Extra reading assignments, especially, are easy to esl phd essay editor service canada p. This page booklet describes in. There are also guidelines for exploiting the. The study investigates the effects of a seven-week extensive reading course in college-level Spanish.

A stand-alone course in extensive reading esl phd essay editor service canada offered as an elective for students at the intermediate through low-advanced levels of Spanish.

Subjects completed two pre- and post-course tests of Spanish proficiency, a questionnaire about their attitudes toward reading and their motivation to read in Spanish, and they wrote weekly reflections about their reading.

Study participants improved significantly on one of the two measures of Spanish proficiency. Results also showed an overall increase in intrinsic motivation, and a decrease in extrinsic motivation to read read article Spanish. Subjects also reported significantly less use of a dictionary at the end of the course.

In many countries, such as Malaysia, a good ability to read not just in L1 but also in L2 is important for academic advancement and for professional and self-development. Therefore, designing effective reading programmes poses a challenge for curriculum planners and this is especially so in L2. This chapter seeks to provide a pedagogical framework for esl phd essay editor service canada in Professional article ghostwriters site which esl phd essay editor service canada the gap between theory and practice.

It provides a definition of reading which is followed by the COMPETENT reading framework. Nurture reading habit emphasizes the importance of extensive reading. Citing Day and Bamfordthe author devotes a three-page discussion on the characteristics of extensive reading, its benefits and some ER programs in Malaysia. Pre- and post-tests were used, but there was no control group.

The extensive reading programme involved students in reading self-selected books and writing reports on these books. The teacher provided feedback on these reports. The researcher states that those students who read more experienced significantly greater improvement in reading ability and vocabulary knowledge, although apparently not in text reading comprehension. The study also investigated reading strategy use among students of varying proficiencies.

Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of more info uses and areas of language knowledge. However, Montag, cheap analysis essay ghostwriter site ca helps research studies have examined reading speed.

The study reported in this article was conducted in Shanghai, mainland China with Year-1 senior high school students. Daily reading records displayed the progress in their reading speed. This chapter reports on the results of an experimental study involving three groups of students from a public high school in Shanghai: one control group, one experimental group with extensive reading as a supplementary input medium and another experimental group with extensive reading as a teaching methodology.

The results suggest that the experimental groups show greater improvement in reading comprehension and overall English language proficiency than the control group. Based on the results, the author makes the following suggestions for designers of other extensive reading programs in similar contexts:.

Where integration reading is implemented, supplementary grammar-translation practice may be appropriate in order to ensure students are not disadvantaged in standardized tests that include grammar translation. The class was built around the reading of a novel during the semester, with students reading a certain number of chapters per week as homework and discussing those chapters in class. Early in the semester, many students did not seem to be reading the assigned chapters, absenteeism was high, and when asked to discuss the chapters in groups, many students esl phd essay editor service canada not participate.

In hopes of improving the situation, the teacher organized students into permanent groups of about five. At first, groups were given questions to answer about the chapters and were rewarded based on the order in which groups correctly completed all the questions. The author reports that while some students continued esl phd essay editor service canada lack motivation, overall the reward system was a success as the class "became a scene of active group cooperation and communication".

The independent variables were frequencies of overall and genre-specific extensive reading. The researchers report that extensive reading was significantly related to writing proficiency for L1 learners but not for L2 learners.

The first explains how graded readers are written by means of lexical, structural, and information control, and discusses issues related to such simplification. The next chapter describes how using graded readers can help learners develop knowledge of language and language use, improve their reading skills and, and enhance their article ghostwriters service university toward reading.

Ideas for selecting graded readers for student use are presented in chapter three, followed by a chapter on how to introduce students to graded readers. Chapter five deals with setting up a class library and how to encourage students to use it frequently and wisely.

Chapter six presents ideas for activities when each student selects their own book to read, and the next chapter gives suggestions for when the entire class is reading click at this page same book. The final chapter provides examples of activities that teachers can create to accompany the graded reader collection.

The first, Instant Book Report, is done in pairs. Students use teacher-supplied questions to tell their partner a bit about a book they have read. Draw a Picture involves students in first working alone to draw something from a book they have read. Then, students take turns to explain their professional essay ghostwriters services and book to partners.

How Many Questions is a technique in which students show and explain to partners an illustration in a book they have read. Partners try to ask as many questions as possible within a given time. Story Telling Sticks involves students in using toothpicks to represent various characters and objects in a book that they are retelling to peers. In this paper, I will consider a definition of ER and benefits of including it in a program.

In the main part of the paper, I will explain four reporting forms that work with different intelligences and levels of processing. Discusses "edited" versions of texts, and the weaknesses thereof. Gives a review of esl phd essay editor service canada texts available in series, and discusses methodological problems. Criteria are provided for choosing appropriate books and films.

A number of activities are illustrated. These include students writing discussion questions, comparison of book and film versions, acting out scenes, and assigning members of the class to write out what given characters esl phd essay editor service canada in the film.

Another activity involved turning off the sound and having students work in pairs in which one could not see the screen. Their partner was to watch and describe the action to them. The problems of second language readers of Irish in the elementary school are analysed. The effect of supplying tapes to accompany leisure books in Irish was explored. There was a significant increase in frequency of reading even in the case of a book which was perceived to be difficult by the children.

Read article benefits indicate that the provision of tapes to accompany leisure readers is an important form of environmental support for second language reading, and an especially useful tool to increase exposure to a minority language in particular.

These are distributed esl phd essay editor service canada throughout the esl phd essay editor service canada. Thus, this Review does not take into account many excellent series published in other countries for local or regional purchase. The Review is based on my personal reading of the titles included.

I have divided the series into four groups: Senior, Middle, Junior, and Non-fiction, though this division is somewhat artificial since some series or some titles within series cross these boundaries. I also consider two more sections in general terms, namely, series published for Africa and those in foreign languages other esl phd essay editor service canada English.

The esl phd essay editor service canada part of the article provides guidelines on choosing popular essay site toronto readers.

Unless educators think big, programmes are likely to die within a few years, resulting in "sad piles of worm-eaten books". Planners must: Set up systems for selecting, ordering, classifying, cataloguing, storing, lending, returning, checking, repairing, and replacing books You must work out a methodology that teachers can employ to raise not only the quantity of books your students read but also the quality of their comprehension and appreciation.

You must fix targets of attainment and establish the keeping of records that enable you to monitor and evaluate the success of the programme. This is indeed a big task, but the author concludes that, "The books are there waiting to be used. The students are there waiting to read them. The work of bringing them together is very worthwhile.

First, the author distinguishes between two types of graded reader, the re-write and the simple original, and gives an overview of the development of graded readers from the s to the present. Second, he describes the criteria for grading and assesses the success with which they have been applied.

Third, he examines the criticisms made of to pay definition cheap do essay readers and puts forward a defence of their place in the language teaching syllabus. The following characteristics are considered: covers, page length, size and look of pages, illustrations, vocabulary and syntax control, glossaries, introductions, pre-reading questions, chapter headings, type of book story, play, poetry, or long fictiongenre fiction - animal, fable, general, romance, spy, science fiction, sport, thriller, or western - and non-fiction - animal, biographical, cultural, geographical, historical, scientific, or sportsetting, period, gender of protagonist, sensitive issues, readability level, interest rating, and age of readership.

It concludes with an in-depth look at the qualities of series in print. It also includes for reference a table of 26 series now out of print.

Graded readers are defined, and their relationship to extensive reading is explained. The series are assessed in terms of content, format and artwork, support for reading, reading task, pedagogical support, and--where appropriate--age group. The survey ends with recommendations for improving graded readers. According to Hill and Van Horn, a key ingredient of the Book Club strategy lies in the group discussions.

The authors report that as a result of this meaningful interaction, Book Club helps students bond with one another in a pro-social way. It was found that the most frequent 2, words do not provide adequate coverage for pleasurable reading and that a vocabulary size of around 5, word families would be needed to do this.

The study also showed a need for graded readers at the 2, and 5,word level and unsimplified texts. The feasibility of preteaching vocabulary and intensive reading of unsimplified texts were also examined. This article discusses how we incorporated an extensive reading ER. After summarizing the ten. We also discuss the. We also found positive results in an affective.

This paper examines traditional simplification techniques for the. Esl phd essay editor service canada two principal forms of simplification, linguistic and content.

The paper argues that these processes. It is argued that such material may lead. The paper makes some suggestions for improving. It concludes, however, by suggesting that. Increased exposure to new words in context is assumed to result in increased vocabulary knowledge. However, good experimental evidence supporting this connection is hard to come by. Most available studies report only tiny gains in vocabulary knowledge as a result of reading.

We believe this problem arises because experiments typically use insensitive methodologies and study the acquisition of only a few words. Our research addresses these design issues.

When we carefully controlled the conditions in which L2 learners read a text, we found clear evidence of a role for frequent exposures to new words. Although this experiment made a stronger case for the benefits of frequent encounters than previous studies, we esl presentation for masters results were limited by two factors: constraints on learning opportunities in natural texts and insensitive testing.

Repeated readings of the same text proved to be a way of offering learners more frequent exposures to new words than are normally available, and a ratings scale allowed us to test word knowledge more sensitively. We implemented these innovations in two case studies that tracked the acquisition of hundreds of target words over many weeks.

Reporting learning results as matrices allowed us to identify growth patterns not picked up by more standard methodologies. The data showed that repeated reading of a single long text does result in substantial learning, but learning is unstable and non-linear.

Matrix modelling predicted patterns of growth surprisingly well. Results also indicated that word knowledge gains were achieved over the course of repeated text exposures regardless of the overt informativeness of contexts surrounding unfamiliar items. Thus, the research confirmed that frequent text encounters with new words play a crucial role in the incidental esl phd essay editor service canada of L2 vocabulary Many language courses now offer access to simplified esl phd essay editor service canada graded.

An assumed benefit is the development of large. This article describes a way of tackling this. The method was pilot. The innovative methodology proved to be feasible to. This replication study demonstrates that second language learners recognised the meanings of new words and built associations between them as a result of comprehension-focused extensive reading. A carefully controlled book-length reading treatment resulted in more incidental word learning and a higher pick-up rate than previous studies with shorter tasks.

The longer text also made it possible to explain incidental learning growth in terms of frequency of occurrence of words in the text. But the general frequency of a word was not found to make the word more learnable. Findings also suggested that subjects with larger L2 vocabulary sizes had greater incidental word learning gains. Implications for incidental acquisition as a strategy for vocabulary growth are discussed.

This paper discusses a modified SSR programme MSSR that I have developed and used successfully in the secondary classroom. The programme can also be modified and adapted for use in primary classrooms. The program combines self-selected silent reading with reading aloud by the teacher, sharing with partners, and monitoring of individual and class reading. Among the sharing activities presented are: retelling all or part of the book, reading aloud favorite parts, and answering thinking questions about the book.

It is stressed that these sharing sessions should be conducted in a non-judgmental, relaxed setting. Among the proposed benefits of such sharing is that students "need to be given an opportunity to express what excites or impresses them, to question what they have read, and to think individually and as a corporate body about their reading".

Adult L2 learners are often encouraged to acquire new words through reading in order to promote language proficiency. Yet preparing suitable reading texts is often a challenge for teachers because the chosen texts must have a high percentage of words familiar to specific groups of learners in order to allow the inference of word meanings from context.

With the help of word lists research and advances in quantitative corpus analyses using word frequency computer programs, this study selected sixteen articles from the computer corpus of a local Chinese-English magazine and used them to construct an online English extensive reading program.

A preliminary assessment of the reading program was conducted with 38 college students over twelve weeks based upon vocabulary gains from a pretest to a posttest. The results showed that learners improved their vocabulary scores after using the reading program. The online extensive reading syllabus demonstrated that such a design for a reading program is technically feasible and pedagogically beneficial and provides value in both vocabulary gains and learner satisfaction.

An ER activity was held for 12 weeks with participants from 4 senior high schools in Southern Taiwan. Focus group interviews were then carried out with 72 randomly selected participants, after which individual interviews were conducted with 6 English teachers from these participating schools. Findings reveal that despite just click for source challenges encountered in implementing the activity, the English teachers observed its benefits and were willing to encourage students to read extensively.

The majority of the student participants also held positive attitudes towards the ER activity. Their positive attitudes, however, did not lead to the enhancement of their motivation in reading extensively due to the heavy workload from tests, homework or cram school. It was generally agreed that ER was time-consuming and not efficient enough to boost their exam scores.

Accordingly, the study suggests that coordinated efforts and change of attitudes among the stakeholders are indispensable in the promotion of ER among senior high school students. After a decade of intensive research, however, the incidental learning of vocabulary is still not fully understood, and many questions remain unsettled.

Key unresolved issues include the actual mechanism of incidental acquisition, the type and size of vocabulary needed for accurate guessing, the degree of exposure to a word needed for successful acquisition, the efficacy of different word-guessing strategies, the value of teaching explicit guessing strategies, the influence of different esl phd essay editor service canada of reading texts, the effects of input modification, and, more generally, the problems with incidental learning.

This article briefly surveys the empirical research that has been done on these issues in recent years. Current research on second language reading and writing development in children has provided teachers and curriculum planners esl phd essay editor service canada multiple possibilities for innovations in classroom practice.

In the esl phd essay editor service canada of oral language development in ESL, this research has made significant contributions both to classroom teaching and to the materials being published for classroom use. Classroom esl phd essay editor service canada in literacy for ESL children, however, have not kept up with research. This article presents several general findings from recent research on second language reading and writing development in children.

These findings suggest: that even children who speak virtually no English read English print in the environment; that ESL learners are able to read English with only limited control over the oral system of the language; that the experiential and cultural background of the ESL reader has a strong effect on reading comprehension; that child ESL learners, early in their development of English, can write English and can do so for various purposes. This article also presents classroom applications for each finding.

Extensive reading ER is an effective way to provide large amounts of comprehensible input to foreign language learners, but many teachers and administrators remain unconvinced, and it has been argued that there is still insufficient evidence to support the claims that have been made regarding its benefits. The ER group achieved significantly higher reading rate gains These results esl phd essay editor service canada to a growing body of empirical evidence of the effectiveness of ER.

Effective second language vocabulary acquisition is particularly important for English as check this out foreign language EFL learners who frequently acquire impoverished lexicons despite years of formal study.

This paper comprehensively reviews and critiques second language L2 reading vocabulary research and proposes that EFL teachers and administrators adopt a systematic framework in order to speed up lexical development. This framework incorporates two approaches: 1 promoting explicit lexical instruction and learning strategies; and 2 encouraging the use of implicit lexical instruction and learning strategies.

The three most crucial explicit lexical instruction and learning strategies are acquiring decontextualized lexis, using dictionaries and inferring from context. Implicit lexical instruction and learning can take many forms including the use of integrated task sets and narrow reading; however, this framework emphasizes extensive reading, which is arguably the primary way that EFL learners can build their reading vocabulary to an advanced level.

The principal notion underlying this framework is that the most effective and efficient lexical development will occur in multifaceted curriculums that achieve a pedagogically sound balance between explicit and implicit activities for L2 learners at all levels of their development.

These authentic purposes will vary and include finding main points, mastering content, relaxation, and finding specific information. Esl phd essay editor service canada reading strategies will be appropriate to these different purposes.

The focus of this article is on helping students develop the flexibility to use a variety of strategies when they read independently. These strategies include: surveying, skimming, scanning, phrase reading, and identifying the genre of a text.

One ER program was less successful than the other. The results on a reading comprehension test between the intensive reading and extensive reading classes were reported, and the ways to a successful ER program are discussed. Although extensive reading is regarded by many practitioners as a potentially very useful means of assisting L2 development, experimental enquiry into its effectiveness has so far produced little more than a collection of learn more here disparate findings.

Nor has any attempt been made to categorically link any such research findings with second language acquisition theory. Consequently, we have no coherent, research-based theory of L2 extensive reading. Using data from a large-scale project implemented in Hong Kong secondary schools, the L2 English "Die definition writing for hire uk kommt of students participating in an extensive reading scheme as part of the school curriculum was compared to that of non-participant students.

Samples of timed narrative writing from students in Secondaries 2 and 3 were rated holistically on a scale of 1 - 6 for overall quality, grammatical complexity, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary range, coherence, spelling and conventions of presentation. A subset of compositions from two control and two experimental classes were further evaluated on a range of objective measures.

Results from the two evaluation procedures were cross-referenced, and indicate that esl phd essay editor service canada reading in an L2 may benefit language development in quite specific ways. Findings are discussed within the context of current psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic theory and an explanation consistent with such theory is popular custom essay writer site for mba. It is argued that, because it is likely to be subserved by a different memory system from that which subserves formal classroom instruction, extensive reading may enhance levels of automaticity, thus favouring the development of fluency, and, concomitantly, complexity and coherence.

At low levels of L2 competence, extensive reading may also accelerate the acquisition of basic grammar through frequency effects. She explains the mechanics of organizing books and esl phd essay editor service canada them out. The Lost Ship Macmillan Readers ; 3. Inspired by current issues in reading and previous ER investigations, this study examined the effectiveness of ER on reading rates of high school students in Japan.

In this study, students were provided with graded readers and comic books as reading material they would find enjoyable. Pretests and posttests of reading rate and language proficiency were administered and a t test was used to compare means of the rates and language proficiency within groups.

Based on the results of a reading questionnaire. She also noted that her students tended to read. Orientation included contrasting intensive and extensive reading. While the number of books her. This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials.

Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from esl phd essay editor service canada the ER materials available to them.

Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks. The present study was undertaken to extend this popular review writers service for college of research in two ways: esl phd essay editor service canada by the inclusion of another set of second language learners, another text, and another group of vocabulary glosses; and, b through the consideration of other variables.

Popular personal essay writing service sf other variables were aptitude, tolerance of ambiguity, psychological type, proficiency, frequency of gloss use, perceived value of gloss use, and time on task.

One hundred sixteen U. They were esl phd essay editor service canada assigned to condition, with half reading an unglossed Spanish text and half reading the same text accompanied by English glosses esl phd essay editor service canada the margin.

After reading the text, participants were asked to write, in English, as much as they esl phd essay editor service canada recall of the text. The dependent variable in the study was recall of the text. Results showed a significant effect for glossing on both measures of recall.

No significant interactions between the treatment and any of the other variables were found. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested darГber best creative writing writer sites Das glossing can play a useful role in aiding the comprehension of authentic or otherwise difficult passages.

However, it is proposed that acquisition of a second language will be increased more by the use of modified texts which encourage students to gain large amounts of comprehensible target language input via extensive reading.

This may be combined with intensive reading of authentic texts with glosses. In this case, students go here be trained in the proper use of glosses.

The effectiveness of such a program of large amounts of extensive reading and smaller amounts of intensive reading of glossed texts is a matter which awaits empirical testing. This article advocates that students and websites essay physics writers create some of their own extensive reading materials.

Learning communities act as a means of motivating and sustaining student and teacher production of extensive reading materials. The article begins by explaining learning communities. The bulk link the article has two parts. The first part focuses on student created extensive reading materials, discussing benefits and ways to produce such materials. The second part does the same for teacher created extensive reading materials.

It is suggested that involving students and teachers in creating ER materials facilitates more egalitarian, more caring education practices. Part 1 considers the materials students read in their extensive reading.

Chapters 3 and 4 suggest how students and teachers, respectively, can create ER materials. Part 2 consists of three chapters on implementing extensive reading. Chapter 5 tackles the all important issue of motivating students to read, whereas Chapter esl phd essay editor service canada looks at activities to accompany ER, while Chapter 7 discusses combining ER with cooperative learning. The book concludes with Part 3 on how teachers can advocate for ER.

Chapter 8 asks how we can cooperate with colleagues to promote the use of ER. Chapter 9 offers suggestions for doing research related to ER. This article begins by explaining the student centered learning paradigm. Next, the article explains various features of a student centered approach to education and how extensive reading ERas it is most often practiced, fits with those features. The bulk of esl phd essay editor service canada article suggests how ER might be implemented to make it even more learner centered.

This article begins by explaining some of the roots, research, principles. Seven positive education principles are: connections with others, responsibility, gratitude, positivity, strengths, kindness and meaning.

Next, the article considers how positive education can inform two approaches to the teaching of reading: dialogic reading and extensive reading. Dialogic reading involves students interacting with teachers and. This interaction can include topics related to emotions and values. Sometimes, students may do activities to share with others about what they read. The last part of the article provides ideas and examples of how dialogic reading and.

A few look at extensive reading for all learners, but most chapters focus in on extensive reading for second language learners. The titles of the individual chapters are listed below.

Click on the chapter number to view the abstract for that particular chapter or. Chapter 1 Yu, V. Encouraging Students to Read More in an Extensive Reading Programme. Chapter 2 Tup, F. Chapter 3 Lituanas, P. Chapter 4 Smith, R. Transforming a Non-Reading Culture.

Chapter 5 Jurkovac, J. Organizing School Wide Reading Campaigns. Chapter 6 Kuan, H. Promoting Active Reading Strategies to Help Slow Readers. Chapter 7 Cockburn, L. Chapter 8 Tan, A. Reading Across the Curriculum. Chapter 9 McQuillan, J.

Chapter 10 Hill, M. Extensive Reading through Book Clubs: How Book Clubs Have Changed Lives. Chapter 11 Tiey, H. Reading Aloud to Students as part of Extensive Reading. Chapter 12 Rodgers, T. Partnerships in Reading and Writing. Chapter 13 Derewianka, B. Using the Internet for Extensive Reading.

Chapter 14 Davidson, C.

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