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Approved by the NCTE Executive Committee, April This position paper is designed to address the knowledge and skills mainstream teachers need to have in order to develop effective curricula that engage English language learners, develop their academic skills, and help them negotiate their identities as bilingual learners.

More specifically, this paper addresses the language and literacy needs of these learners as they participate and learn in English-medium classes. In the United States bilingual learners, more commonly referred to as English language learners, are defined as students who know a language other than English and are learning English. The recommendations in this paper apply to all of them. The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition NCELA reported that in there were over five million English language learners ELLs in dissertation introduction services london in the United States NCELA, Federal, state, and local policies have addressed esl research paper editing sites education of bilingual learners by implementing different types of programs.

Different models of bilingual education, English as a Second Language, English immersion, and integration into mainstream classes, sometimes referred to as submersion, are among the most common approaches. Preferences for the types of programs have changed over time, responding to demographic and political pressures.

The best way to educate bilingual learners has been at the center of much controversy. Teachers working to better esl research paper editing sites the needs of linguistically diverse students need support. NCTE encourages English teachers to esl research paper editing sites and work closely with ESL and bilingual teaching professionals, who can offer classroom support, instructional advice, and general insights into second language acquisition.

School administrators should support and encourage teachers to attend workshops and professional conferences that regularly offer sessions on bilingual learners, particularly in the areas of reading and writing. Schools should also consider seeking professional development for their teachers from neighboring colleges.

In turn, colleges and universities providing teacher education should offer all preservice teachers, as well as teachers pursuing advanced degree work, preparation in teaching linguistically diverse learners in their future classrooms.

Coursework should be offered on second language writing and reading, and on second language acquisition, as well as on culture, and should be encouraged for all teachers. Bilingual students differ in various ways, including level of oral English proficiency, literacy ability in both the heritage language and English, and cultural backgrounds. English language learners born in the United States often develop conversational language abilities in English but lack academic language proficiency.

Newcomers, on the other hand, need to go here both conversational and academic English. Education previous to entering U. Given the wide range of Esl research paper editing sites language learners and their backgrounds, it is important that all teachers take the time to learn about their students, particularly in terms of their literacy histories.

Immigrant students and the children of immigrants in the United States come from many cultural backgrounds. The background knowledge English learners bring to school greatly affects their performance. For this reason, teachers of English language learners should be sure to build background for content lessons rather than assuming that bilingual students come with the same background knowledge as mainstream students.

This section esl research paper editing sites addresses teaching language, reading, and writing, as well as the specific kinds http://dvdbestonline.co/popular-scholarship-essay-ghostwriting-service-usa.php academic literacy that are often a part of most English and language arts curricula.

Although English language arts teachers have literacy as the focus of their teaching, many of these suggestions are useful for teachers working in the content areas as well. To acquire academic content through English, English language learners need to esl research paper editing sites English.

The academic language that students need in the different content areas differs, and students need scaffolding to help them to learn both the English language and the necessary content. For English language learners, teachers need to consider content objectives as well as English language development objectives.

Bilinguals need three types of knowledge to become literate in a second language. They need to know the second language; they need to know literacy; and they need world knowledge Bernhardt, The sections below list key ideas for helping English language learners develop academic English proficiency.

More detailed information on the topics covered in this section can be obtained from the topical bibliography compiled as part of this project. Knowledge of the students is key to good teaching. Because teachers relate to students both as learners and as children or adolescents, teachers must establish how they will address these two types of relationships, what they need to know about their students, and how they esl research paper editing sites acquire this knowledge.

The teacher-learner relationship implies involvement between teachers and students around subject matter and language and literacy proficiency in both languages. Adult-child relationships esl research paper editing sites more personal esl research paper editing sites should include the family. Focusing on both types of relationships bridges the gap between school and the world outside it, a gap that is especially important for esl research paper editing sites bilingual students whose world differs greatly from school.

Second language learners need to develop academic proficiency in English to master content-area subjects. Teachers can provide effective instruction for these students by: Bilingual students also need to learn to read and write effectively in order to succeed in school.

Writing well in English is often the most difficult skill for English language learners to master. Many English language learners are still acquiring vocabulary and syntactic competence in their writing. Students may show varying degrees of acquisition, and not all second language writers will have the same difficulties or challenges.

Teachers should be aware that English language learners may not be familiar with terminology and routines often associated with writing instruction in the United States, including writing process, drafting, revision, editing, workshop, conference, audience, purpose, or genre. Furthermore, certain elements of discourse, particularly in terms of audience and persuasion, may differ across cultural contexts. The same is true for textual borrowing and plagiarism.

The CCCC Statement on Second Language Writing and Writers is a useful resource for all teachers of writing to examine. The best way to help students learn both English and the knowledge of school subjects is to teach language through content.

This should not replace reading and writing instruction in English, nor study of literature and grammar. The integration of such programs in high school English departments should be encouraged. As the number of bilingual learners in mainstream classes increases, it becomes even more important for mainstream teachers to use effective practices to engage these students so that they can acquire the academic English and the content-area knowledge they need for school success.

The guidelines offered here are designed as initial suggestions for teachers esl research paper editing sites follow. However, we recognize that all teachers need much more. Teachers need continued support and professional development to enable all their students, including their bilingual students, to succeed. American Federation of Teachers. Closing the achievement gap: Focus on Latino students Policy Brief What are the characteristics of the bilingual education and ESL teacher shortage?

A psycholinguistic perspective on second language literacy. Reading in Two Link. AILA Review8, Secondary school newcomer programs in the United States Research Report Bilingual education: From compensatory to quality schooling. Los Angeles: Bilingual Education Services.

Effective bilingual education: From theory to academic achievement in a two-way bilingual program. Bilingual Research Journal26 1 ; What teachers esl research paper editing sites to know about language. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Closing the achievement gap. Essential linguistics: Everything you need to know to teach reading, ESL, spelling, phonics, and grammar.

English learners in California schools: Unequal resources, unequal outcomes. Education Policy Analysis Archives11 Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning: Teaching second language learners in the mainstream classroom. A meta-analysis of the Rossell and Baker review of bilingual education research. Bilingual Research Journal Native languages of limited English proficient students. Retrieved March 5, Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Education Programs NCELA.

Under attack: The case against bilingual education. Culver City, CA: Language Education Associates. An analysis of media opinion of bilingual education, Bilingual Research Journal20 1 An overview of the preparation and certification of teachers working with limited English proficient students.

Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse of Bilingual Education. The growing number of limited English proficient students Educational Esl research paper editing sites19, — Newcomer programs: An educational alternative for secondary immigrant students. Education and Urban Society 34 2— Washington, DC: The National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. Research synthesis on effective teaching practices for English language learners Publication Series No. Philadelphia: Mid-Atlantic Regional Educational Laboratory. A meta-analysis of selected studies on the effectiveness of bilingual education.

Review of Educational Research55 essay for popular university site admission ghostwriters— Online Directory of ESL Resources - A searchable database of the most useful ESL resources, primarily for teachers and students, from the National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education and the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Look especially in the pre-formed esl research paper editing sites for megasites.

English Second Language AskERIC - Annotated list of resources, including lesson plans, internet sites, listservs, and organizations. English Language Instructional Support for English Language Learners ODE - English Language Learner ELL Standards. A how-to guide for teaching English language learners in the primary classroom. Curricular read article Themes in multilingual and monolingual classrooms.

The more-than-just-surviving handbook: ESL for every classroom teacher. Closing the achievement gap: How to reach limited-formal-schooling and long-term English learners. The best for our children: Critical perspectives on literacy for Latino students. New York: Teachers College Press. Children and ESL: Integrating perspectives. Washington, DC: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Teaching language minority students in the multicultural classroom.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. The tapestry of language learning: The individual in the communicative classroom. What if and why? New ways in content-based instruction. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Stage by stage: A handbook for using drama in the second language classroom. The cognitive academic language learning approach. Instructional approaches and teaching procedures.

Teaching language and content esl research paper editing sites linguistically and culturally diverse students: Principles, ideas, and materials.

Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. The content-based classroom: Perspectives on integrating language and content. White Plains, NY: Longman. Brave new schools: Challenging cultural illiteracy through global learning networks 2nd ed.

English language learners with special education needs: Identification, assessment, and instruction. Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters. How to align literacy instruction, assessment, and standards and achieve results you never dreamed possible. Literacy and bilingualism: A handbook for ALL teachers.

Going graphic: Comics at work in the multilingual classroom. Integrating English: Developing English language and literacy in the multilingual classroom. Teaching reading in multilingual classrooms. Teaching reading and writing in Spanish in the bilingual classroom.

Write on: Children writing in ESL. Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for K teachers. New York: Addison Wesley Longman. Buddy reading: Cross age tutoring in a multicultural school. Successful transition into mainstream English: Effective strategies for studying literature Educational Practice Report No.

Kids come in all languages: Reading instruction for ESL students. So much to say: Adolescents, bilingualism, and ESL in the secondary school. Joinfostering: Adapting teaching for the multilingual classroom. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill. School click at this page for secondary English learners.

Educating Latino high school students with little formal schooling. Promoting secondary school transitions for immigrant adolescents No. Into, through, and beyond secondary school: Critical transitions for immigrant youths. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied Linguistics. Through the golden door: Education approaches to immigrant adolescents with limited schooling. McHenry, IL: Delta Systems.

Turning the tides of exclusion: A guide for educators and advocates for immigrant students. Oakland, CA: California Tomorrow. With different eyes: Insights into teaching language minority students across the disciplines.

Ruiz de Velasco, J. Overlooked and underserved: Immigrant students in U. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. Strategies for success: Engaging immigrant students in secondary schools ERIC Esl research paper editing sites. Varied voices: On language and literacy learning.

Understanding ESL writers: A guide for teachers. Second-language writing in the composition classroom: A critical sourcebook.

Students and teachers writing together: Perspectives on journal writing. Landmark essays on ESL writing. Improving schooling for language-minority children: A research agenda. Washington, DC: Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Meeting the challenge of language diversity: An evaluation of programs for pupils with limited proficiency in English Executive Summary No.

Berkeley, CA: BW Associates. Raising literacy levels in third world countries: A method that works. Literacy before schooling K. New concepts for new challenges: Professional development for teachers of immigrant youth. McHenry, IL: Delta Systems and the Center for Applied Linguistics.

The power of reading: Insights from the research. Becoming biliterate: A study of two-way bilingual immersion education. Learning to read in New Zealand. Katonah, NY: Richard C. Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education 3rd ed.

The light in their eyes: Creating multicultural learning communities. Con respeto: Bridging esl research paper editing sites distances between esl research paper editing sites diverse families and schools.

Learning and not learning English: Latino students in American schools. The parent project: A workshop approach to parent involvement. Essential linguistics: What you need to know to teach reading, ESL, spelling, phonics, and grammar. Understanding communication in second language classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press. Constructing knowledge together: Classrooms esl research paper editing sites centers of inquiry and literacy. Language minority students in the mainstream classroom.

Philadelphia, PA: Multilingual Matters. Teaching English as a second or foreign language 3rd ed. Understanding second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Between worlds: Access to second language acquisition. Student cultural diversity: Understanding and meeting the challenge 3rd ed.

Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Promoting learning for culturally and linguistically diverse students. Albany, NY: Wadsworth Publishing. Language and cognitive development in second language learning: Educational implications for children and adults.

Beyond language: Social and cultural factors in schooling language http://dvdbestonline.co/do-my-sociology-speech.php students.

Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination, and Esl research paper editing sites Center, School of Education, California State Esl research paper editing sites, Los Angeles. Principles and practice in second language acquisition. New York: Pergamon Press. Explorations in language acquisition and use.

An introduction to esl research paper editing sites language acquisition research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Language development and education: Children with varying language experience. Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Restructuring esl research paper editing sites for linguistic diversity: Linking decision making to effective programs.

English as a second language in the mainstream. Bridges: Promising programs for the education of immigrant children. San Francisco: California Tomorrow. And then there were two: Children and second-language learning. Making it happen: Interactions in the second language classroom: From theory to practice 3rd ed. New York: Prentice Hall. Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Profiles in two-way immersion education. Dual language instruction: A handbook for enriched education.

Language loyalties: A source book on the official English controversy. Chicago, IL: Esl research paper editing sites of Chicago Press. Bilingual education: History, politics, theory and practice 4th ed. Los Angeles: Bilingual Educational Services. Educating English learners: Language diversity in the classroom 5th ed. Negotiating identities: Education for empowerment in a diverse society.

Los Angeles: California Association of Bilingual Education. Language, power, and pedagogy: Bilingual children in the crossfire. Bilingual education in elementary and secondary school communities: Toward understanding and caring.

Dual language essentials for teachers and administrators. The foundations of dual language instruction. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishers USA. Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching esl research paper editing sites multicultural contexts 2nd ed. Myths and realities: Best practices for language minority students. Bilingualism or not: The education of minorities. Dual language: Teaching and learning in two languages.

Inventing a classroom: Life in a bilingual, whole language learning community. National Council of Teachers of English. All rights reserved in all media. Browse our FAQs. Link and Links Policy. Skip to main document. Skip to site search. Skip to main site navigation. CCCC Call for Program Proposals. CCCC Conventions and Meetings. A Note on Proposal Review. NCTE Education Policy Platform.

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NCTE - The National Council of Teachers Of English. A Professional Association of Educators in English Studies, Literacy, and Language Arts. Organization Website Primary Navigation. Contact NCTE NCTE Centennial Mission History Governance Awards Donations National Center for Literacy Education. African American Read-In Join the Online Conversations National Day on Writing Take Action Volunteer Write for NCTE.

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