Legacy: The Origins of Civilization - Top Documentary Films Order ancient civilizations admission essay Do Elephants Have Souls? - The New Atlantis


Generally opening around lunchtime and open until dusk, baths were accessible to all. Walls could also provide heating with the insertion of hollow rectangular tubes.

Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis. There is mystery behind that masked gray visage, an ancient life force, delicate and mighty, awesome and enchanted, commanding the silence ordinarily reserved for mountain peaks, great fires, and the sea.

Grandmothers, aunts, sisters, and cousins crowd around the new arrival and its dazed mother, trumpeting and stamping and waving their trunks to welcome the floppy baby who has so recently arrived from out of the void, bursting through the border of existence to take its place in an unbroken line stretching back to the dawn of life.

After almost two years in the womb and a few minutes to stretch its legs, the calf can begin to stumble around. But its trunk, an evolutionarily unique inheritance of up tomuscles with the dexterity to pick up a pin and the strength to uproot a tree, will be a mystery to it at first, with little apparent use except to order ancient civilizations admission essay suck upon like human babies do their thumbs.

It will only process about 40 percent of the nutrients in this food, however; the waste it leaves behind helps fertilize plant growth and provide accessible nutrition on the ground to smaller animals, thus making the elephant a keystone species order ancient civilizations admission essay its habitat. From pounds at birth, it will continue to grow throughout its life, to up to 7 tons for a male of the largest species or 4 tons for a female. Of the many types of elephants and mammoths that used to roam the earth, one born today will belong to one of three surviving species: Elephas maximus in Asia, Loxodonta africana savanna elephant or Loxodonta cyclotis forest elephant in Africa.

There are aboutAfrican elephants order ancient civilizations admission essay now about a third of them the more reticent, less studied L. The Swedish Elephant Encyclopedia database currently lists just under 5, most of them E. She in turn will be an enthusiastic caretaker and playmate to her younger cousins and siblings. If she conceives, she will have a calf twenty-two months later, crucially aided in birthing order ancient civilizations admission essay raising it by the more experienced older ladies.

She may have another every four to five years into her fifties or sixties, but not all will survive. If it is a bull, he will stay with popular cv ghostwriting site nyc family until the age of ten or twelve, when his increasingly rough and suggestive play will cause him to be sent off. He may loosely join forces with a few other young males, or trail around after older ones he looks up to, but for the most part he will be independent from then on.

Although he reaches sexual maturity at a fairly young age, thanks to the competition he may not sire any children until he is close to thirty.

Ancient Indian poetry lauds bulls in musth for their amorous powers, even as keepers of Asian elephants have respected the phase as one highly dangerous to humans since time immemorial. Untilit was widely believed in the scientific community that Order ancient civilizations admission essay elephants do order ancient civilizations admission essay enter musth.

O ther than this primal temporary madness, elephants when they do not feel threatened are quite peaceable, with a gentle, loyal, highly social nature. Here is how John Donne, having seen one at a London exposition input it : Natures great master-peece, an Elephant, The onely harmlesse great thing; the giant Of beasts; who thought, no more had gone, to make one wise But to be just, and thankfull, loth to offend, Yet nature hath given order ancient civilizations admission essay no knees to bend Himselfe he up-props, on himselfe relies, And foe to none, suspects no enemies.

Donne is not the first or the last to view the elephant in its stature and dignity as a synecdoche for the total grandeur of the universe, come to earth in lumpen grey form. Here he suggests that it represents a moral ideal as well. Animals are often celebrated for virtues that they seem to embody: dogs for loyalty, bears for courage, dolphins for altruism, and so on.

But what does it really mean for them to model these things? When people act virtuously, we give them credit for well-chosen behavior. Animals, it is presumed, do so without choosing. In other words, a soul. To the ancients, soul order ancient civilizations admission essay animathat which animates, the living- moving- breathing-ness of a biological being.

In this sense, not only animals but plants have souls of different capacities appropriate to what they are. For popular annotated bibliography editing services for phd religions, by contrast, the soul is specifically incorporeal, perhaps immortal, and believed to be unique to human beings, who are responsible to a point for its condition.

To modern science it is, if anything, the hard problem of consciousness, also commonly thought to be the province of just one species. Without either choosing sides or somehow reconciling these three dueling realities with each other, it would be impossible to say what a soul islet alone who has one. But there is a fourth sense order ancient civilizations admission essay which when we talk about it, we all mean more or less the same thing: what it means for someone to bare it, for music to have it, for eyes to be http://dvdbestonline.co/popular-report-ghostwriter-websites-liverpool.php window to it, for it to be uplifted or depraved.

Even if, religiously, we know by revelation that other people possess them for eternity, go here only engage with or know anything about them at a quotidian level by way of the same cues and interactions that a more this-worldly view would take as their sum total: bright eyes, a dejected slump, a sudden manic inspiration what best essay writing sites nyc Pozniak a confession of regret.

Also a matter of conventional wisdom is the idea that human beings are on one side of a great divide while all animals are on the other, subjects of their instincts and our necessities and pleasures. What exactly the divide is, though, is difficult to define. Various contestants have included reason, language, art, technology, religion, walking order ancient civilizations admission essay and the use of hands, knowledge of mortality, sin, suicide, and more.

In The Explicit AnimalRaymond Tallis rounds up a master list of them: Man has called himself among other things : the rational animal; the moral animal; the consciously choosing animal; the deliberately evil animal; the political animal; the toolmaking animal; the historical animal; the commodity-making animal; the economical animal; the foreseeing animal; the promising animal; the death-knowing animal; the art-making or aesthetic animal; the explaining animal; the cause-bearing animal; the classifying animal; the measuring animal; the counting animal; the metaphor-making animal; the talking animal; the laughing animal; the religious animal; the spiritual animal; the metaphysical animal; the wondering animal Man, it seems, is the self-predicating animal.

As Tallis goes on to explain, any given one of those distinctions is both too narrow, in being an insufficient explanation of what makes human beings human, and too open, in being demonstrably shared to some extent by another species. Chimpanzees and order ancient civilizations admission essay large primates, for instance, are so intelligent and personable that they blur many of these boundaries.

But since we are so closely connected evolutionarily, it is easy to tacitly view them as way stations toward the human apex, impoverished versions of ourselves rather than somebody in their own right. There is, however, nothing else remotely like an elephant. Its closest living relatives are sea cows — dugongs and manatees — and the hyrax, an African shrewmouse about the size of a rabbit.

As such, it presents the perfect opportunity for thoughtful reconsideration of the human difference, and how much that difference really matters. To the elephant, our scrap of consciousness May seem as inconsequential as a space-invader blip. To some scientists and philosophers, he noted, this is an unanswerable question; it is not like anything to be a bat because they believe the bat does not have enough awareness to subjectively experience itself.

Nagel, taking for granted that bats have some kind of experience, also determined that the question is unanswerable because however well we imagine what it would be like for us to live as bats, the bat is so biologically foreign that its experience is beyond our mental grasp.

For people hoping nonetheless to comprehend the lives of elephants, there is an astounding wealth of information about them, a tiny fraction of which appears in the addendum at the enda slightly larger fraction on my office shelves, and a realistically inexhaustible fund in libraries, databases, and oral histories around the world.

The result of a close-knit, crack team of researchers who have been patiently and creatively observing the same elephant families for decades, this work combines the power of concrete study with the power of story and narrative. Powerful for us, that is, onlookers from the outside. What is it like to be an elephant? Is it like anything? How would we know? One of the major clues that elephants have something order ancient civilizations admission essay would recognize as inner lives is their extraordinary memories.

Carol Buckley, co-founder of the Elephant Sanctuary in Tennessee, a retirement ranch for maltreated veterans of circuses and zoos, order ancient civilizations admission essay the arrival of a newcomer to the facility. Shirley very deliberately showed Tarra each injury she had sustained at the circus, and Tarra then gently moved her trunk over each injured part. She wanted to get close to Shirley who was divided by two stalls.

Once Shirley was allowed into the adjacent stall the interaction between order ancient civilizations admission essay and Jenny became quite intense. Jenny wanted to get into the stall with Shirley desperately. She became order ancient civilizations admission essay, banging on the gate and trying to climb through and over.

After several minutes of touching and exploring each other, Shirley started to ROAR and I mean ROAR — Jenny joined in immediately.

The interaction was dramatic, to say the least, with both elephants trying to climb in with each other and frantically touching each other through the bars. I have never experienced anything even close to this depth of emotion. We opened the gate and let them in together One moves, and the other shows in unison. It is a miracle and joy to behold. This is a big adjustment, not often attempted for animals who have lived for some length of time in a captive or domesticated setting, but the order ancient civilizations admission essay releases are helped by older elephants who have gone through the same thing themselves especially important in welcoming them into a herd that is not their blood kin.

In a report in National Geographichead keeper Joseph Sauni recounts how an adventurous little one named Irima ran away to try out his independence early.

After a few days, a trumpety clamor was heard at the gate. Edo drank some water from the well, ate some food, and took off again. In Coming of Age with ElephantsJoyce Poole tells the story of a ranch herder whose leg was broken by a matriarch in an accidental confrontation with her family.

When his camels wandered back without him in the evening, a search party was sent out. He was eventually discovered under a tree, attended by a female elephant who fiercely prevented anybody from approaching. As order ancient civilizations admission essay were preparing to shoot her, the herder frantically signaled for them to stop. There she stood guard over him through the afternoon, through the night, and into the next day.

Her family left her behind, but she stayed on, occasionally touching him with her trunk. When a herd of buffaloes came to drink at the trough, she left his side and chased them away. Order ancient civilizations admission essay whence come these altruistic actions? Are they the product of blind instinct in the animal, the residue of ancestral behavior benefiting kin, whereas for humans they would be a generous and morally commendable choice?

Or is the truth somewhere in between, some combination of the two, for both of us? But in order ancient civilizations admission essay course of watching elephants, I have always had a sense that they often do think about what they are doing, the choices they have, and the decisions that they are making.

For example, when a young musth male is threatened by a high-ranking order ancient civilizations admission essay male, his usual response is to drop out of musth immediately. He lowers his head, and urine dribbling can cease in a matter of seconds. Many biologists would explain this phenomenon simply by arguing that order ancient civilizations admission essay who behave in manner X live to produce more surviving offspring than males who behave in manner Y, and thus the trait for behaving in manner X order ancient civilizations admission essay passed on to future generations.

Thus, male elephants today automatically behave the way they do because they have been programmed through the successful behavior of their ancestors to do so. It is easy to see how either behavior might be rewarded and reinforced by reproductive success over time, either explained just as handily. This automatically excludes a key factor in the scenario, as Poole continues: Although I rely on such explanations myself, as I have gotten to know order ancient civilizations admission essay better I have been more and more convinced that they do think, sometimes consciously, about the particular situations in which they find themselves.

In the case of the young musth male, I believe that he may actually consider his options: to keep dribbling, stand with head high, and be attacked, or to cease dribbling, stand with order ancient civilizations admission essay low, and be tolerated. In other words, the male may in fact have some conscious control With dominance rank between males changing on a daily basis, a male needs to be able to adjust his behavior accordingly.

All of this information must be assimilated on a daily basis and gauged relative to his own condition. Can so complex an assessment be carried out without thinking? Of course, similar mechanistic order ancient civilizations admission essay are now often applied to human actions as well. As Poole acknowledges, they are grounded in something real, but do not allow for the fullest understanding of what is going on.

In a way, it may actually be more instructive to look at the flaws in this line of reasoning with an animal example, which helps to avoid some of the metaphysical minefields surrounding the issue. Properly nuanced discussions about animal activity can be soundly materialistic without order ancient civilizations admission essay reductive.

The victim is a drunk man plucked from out of his house and impaled in his own yard. A marksman is contracted by the Indian order ancient civilizations admission essay to shoot the bull and put a stop to this behavior. Hall, a journalist based in New Delhi, believes something fishy is up and finagles his way into the search party so he can expose it. Sure that Dinesh Choudhury, the marksman, is a stone-cold mercenary insensate to the dignity of elephants, probably framing some meek hapless creature for crimes it could not really have committed, Order ancient civilizations admission essay pompously lectures him about them — only to have his pretensions flattened by this man who loves and understands the hathi elephants far better than Hall knew was even possible, and who inducts him into a whole hathi universe of deep feeling and sly intelligence and indeed, moral agency.

At one point they catch up with the elephant and Mr. Choudhury steals off to confront him alone — not to shoot, but simply to meet his eyes and give him warning. Therefore, I always give each elephant a chance to redeem himself.

If you go, order ancient civilizations admission essay will live. Many years ago, the man purchased him on a whim, order ancient civilizations admission essay a lifelong affection for the creatures but not knowing anything about them. Further, being often away from home on business, the owner heedlessly left him in the care of a vicious scamp, returning one day http://dvdbestonline.co/pay-for-professional-admission-essay-on-hacking.php find him tied up to a tree, malnourished, and scarred from frequent beatings.

The keeper who was nowhere to be found until he was discovered locked up for fighting in a bar was immediately fired, and a kinder one employed to nurse the hathi back to health. But a few weeks later, the old keeper showed up again, belligerently drunk, demanding money from the owner and order ancient civilizations admission essay the elephant.

He wanted me to remember him every day for the rest of my life. And so I have done for the past ten years. Most of all his. How relevant is this to what becomes of them, when there is a fundamental obligation to protect society? Like humans, most traumatized elephants do not become violent, but just absorb their hurts in confusion and sadness and respond to them in other familiar ways. Order ancient civilizations admission essay The Dynasty of Abuthe zoologist Ivan T. Sanderson recounts the story of an elephant named Sadie, who was practicing but failing to learn a circus routine.

If you shoot an animal, you may order ancient civilizations admission essay it to make whimpering noises That any animal, and order ancient civilizations admission essay one weighing 3 tons, should lie down and sob her heart out in pure emotional frustration is something else again.

It almost looks as if, despite all that we like to believe, we humans are not the only creatures that possess what we call emotions and higher feelings. In order ancient civilizations admission essay, if we insist upon making a distinction between ourselves and other animals in this respect, we will then have to provide a special niche for the Abu. Ever the painstaking naturalist, Darwin latches onto a physiological investigation of the muscles surrounding the eyes order ancient civilizations admission essay how their contraction may cause or allow for tears, whether they are more likely to be contracted while prostrate, and so forth.

He manages to induce a batch of children to squeeze these muscles repeatedly as a test, to very little tearful effect. We need another and a wiser and perhaps a more mystical concept of animals.

Remote from universal nature, and living by complicated artifice, man in civilization surveys the creature through the glass of his knowledge and sees thereby a feather order ancient civilizations admission essay and the whole image in distortion. We patronize them for their incompleteness, for their tragic fate of having taken form so far below ourselves. And therein we err, and greatly err.

For the animal shall not be measured by man. In a world older and more complete than ours they move finished and complete, gifted with extensions of the senses we have lost or never order ancient civilizations admission essay, living by voices we shall never hear.

They are not brethren, they are not underlings; they are other nations, caught with ourselves in the net of life and time. One simply had to compare it to the likely response of the human animal if subjected to the same set of circumstances. Researchers are not even supposed to name their subjects, lest the sense of intimacy in a name compromise their objectivity.

Despite its limits, surely this is a better orientation than that of the British Raj officers of yore, who in the great tradition of Royal Society vivisections and other such doings obtained a wealth of information about elephantine physiology by restraining the animals and applying pain to find the most sensitive pressure points, coldly taking notes on their new knowledge of the nervous system. The taboo against anthropomorphism exists for three basic reasons.

First of all, we as human beings are prone to mistake the thoughts and feelings of each othereven the people we are closest to — how much more so is this a risk in speculating about order ancient civilizations admission essay of another species?

Even supposing that the elephants were our equals in intelligence, their life differs from ours so fundamentally that trying order ancient civilizations admission essay infer their perspective from our own experience is bound to miss the mark in many ways.

For one thing, as a rule elephants have poor vision — but their sense of smell is exquisite, revealing a whole olfactory landscape that we are contentedly closed off to. Also, they do not fall romantically in love that we know of; that their behavior indicates.

And of course there are a variety of other differences — where they live, how they live, the fact that from birth to death a female unless something has gone wrong will never be alone and after a certain point a male mostly will. How might these things shape a psyche? Meanwhile, on our end, we the human race are masters of projection, from the teddy bears or in my case, stuffed raccoons and walruses that we befriend as children to the humanoid robots that we may build or purchase as adults, engineered to cue us to respond to them like sentient beings.

We like to feel that these inanimate objects have reciprocal affections for us, although we always know at some order ancient civilizations admission essay that they do not. For real sentient beings, though, the truth is more complex. They are not us, but to look into their eyes order ancient civilizations admission essay to know that someone is in there. Imposing our own specific thoughts and feelings on that someone is in one sense too imaginative, in presuming he could receive the world in the way we do, and in another not imaginative enough, in not opening our minds to the full possibilities of his difference.

There was an existential connection between them in their improbable blessing of breathing, beating life. But as to what Buber was thinking — notice how he moves from their shared primal vitality, realized by touch, to their distinct seats of awareness, and the possibility of coming together in faux conspiracy.

Consider order ancient civilizations admission essay any empathetic connection forms. You begin with some point of commonality with your own life, something as elaborate as a similar identity or experience or as simple as a feeling everybody knows firsthand, such as pain or affection.

This leap will always involve some element of imagination, as we cannot know exactly what someone may be feeling on the other side. Thus our empathy and irrepressible imagination are not merely impediments to clear understanding, but may instead offer new avenues toward it.

T he second reason for the taboo is that in modern Western science, the whole concept of life is so mechanical that, if you look closely, not even people are supposed to be anthropomorphized. Emotional, holistic terms such as lovesorrowand concern have no place in an impoverished language of chemical transactions at the micro level and selection pressures at the macro. Not that chemical transactions and selection pressures are not essential influences, because of course they are — but from our current knowledge of them, they are acutely inadequate to describing the subtleties of lived experience.

This framework goes back to Descartes, whose dualistic universe of absolute mind at one end and absolute matter at the other admitted nothing in between. Indeed, Descartes reasoned that since animals are not rational, they are not conscious, and since they are not conscious, they cannot even be aware of pain; their piteous howls during the horrible experiments he conducted on them were to him mere reflex, the unfelt expression of material reactions akin to the shrieking of a teakettle.

This idea was long ago debunked, but the philosophy it came from lives on in various ways. Early developers of artificial intelligence, for instance, focused on programming mightily continue reading functions such as chess and advanced mathematics — order ancient civilizations admission essay that are ideally suited to computers, but also, as M. Never mind small children — there is not a robot in the world that knows the things a puppy knows.

More importantly, the latter emerged in continuity with the former, not as a detached occurrence with an unrelated meaning. This is an important corrective to the abstraction of thought from embodiment, and ought to indicate that mental and emotional experiences we know als best academic essay writing site australia der have might well be shared to some degree by fellow creatures, our evolutionary kin; discerning them is not imposing human attributes on animals but just acknowledging the results of a common heritage.

To be sure, this field comes with its own pitfalls, the retroactive just-so stories that speculatively explain the evolutionary heritage of any behavior, as Poole discussed above. But in any event, today we have readmitted into respectable science a whole spectrum of biologically-based feeling, though this is actually because we are leaving behind the mind for just the matter.

Pure conscious rationality, instead of the one sure thing, is by some accounts an elaborate delusion. That is a subject for another time, but for here and now the lesson of Descartes is this: to deny obvious suffering based on a preconceived idea is as unscientific as it is heartless. Custom university argumentative essay ideas that the appearance of boredom, loneliness, frustration, and grief in animals is continue reading an anthropomorphic projection is to labor under a forced ignorance that is protested by our own intuition as well as all the evidence.

Even as new developments offer more insight into the distinctions between their feelings and ours, we have to grant order ancient civilizations admission essay benefit of the doubt that they are feeling something. The example of Peter Singer shows that this fear is not unfounded. But Order ancient civilizations admission essay is equally order ancient civilizations admission essay known for promoting reprehensible ideas about the treatment of vulnerable human beings — the young, the old, the ill, and the disabled.

The insidious connection between these two stances is a philosophy that attaches value to specific capacities rather than beings as a whole: If a certain level of intelligence or other properties means animals should be accorded more value, conversely, to Singer the absence of those properties in some people makes those individuals worth less.

Though based on nearly opposite standards for how to value living beings, both these approaches basically annihilate human equality as a special ideal, that self-evident order ancient civilizations admission essay that somehow in all times and places has been shockingly hard to defend. Hence valiant crusaders against assaults on this front, such as bioethicist Wesley J.

This is the moral universe that people suspicious of animal advocacy fear. Whatever the philosophical merits of this stance, it is certainly true at a practical level that people have power over animals in most situations and so it is up to us to set the standard for their treatment. So what does animal welfare entail? But apparently the suggestion that this behavior indicates the presence of recognizable emotions is click at this page dangerously anthropomorphic idea to be putting in the heads of children.

Shutterstock Ingrid Newkirk does not claim that rats and pigs can make machinery or ponder metaphysics, but that they feel emotions, and that taking those into account, we should not degrade or harm animals in the ways that matter to them — not by being denied suffrage, say, but by being bored or scared or separated from their families. On the other hand, as these capacities do have a bearing on the stature of the species overall, it ought to follow that other species with heightened abilities should be accorded value for those things as well.

In any case, tactically speaking, one would think that sensitivity and respect for life at different levels would find themselves in common cause.

Our natural sympathies represent an invaluable kind of moral insight to be nurtured rather than squelched wherever they do appear. Without establishing equality per sethis surely applies to our relationship to animals as well. She crooned and stroked it and did not settle down till it had been properly laid to rest. What did this mean to her, exactly? And not one of them will fall to the ground apart from your Father.

But even the hairs of your head are all numbered. If a esl essay nyc expository services writers little bird is worth the all-consuming grief of Dulary the Elephant and the cosmos-animating mind of the Father of Creation, and human worth surpasses that, then what is there to lose in holistically appreciating the life of this one bird, even insofar as it resembles ours?

And how much more than the bird an elephantwhich by its own extraordinary nature shows that all species are not equal — but is a portal to the world of non-human life, and the possibilities therein.

I f the core elements of life, sensation, and emotion are so widely distributed as to encompass a huge swath of the animal kingdom, what is the moral difference between a species with higher capabilities and one without? As it happens, given what we know today, elephants arguably meet all three tests.

Jonas selects these particular traits on the basis that they are known to have existed even in prehistoric man, and even in their most incipient forms are indicators of important mental and spiritual qualities that would seem to make him unique. On one count, elephants fail the tool test, for they do not make artifacts they then reuse and obviously have not developed the kind of technology that has completely unleveled the odds in our efforts to hunt or trap or train them or encroach upon their habitat.

However, they do use objects as intermediaries between them and their environment, such as sticks to scratch between their toes and remove bugs from other areas, or twisted clumps of grass like Q-tips to clean inside their ears or whisks to swat at flies.

Elephants dig holes for water, order ancient civilizations admission essay them with plugs of bark and grass, and return later to their secret stash.

All these behaviors are oriented directly toward fulfilling basic animal wants and needs, and all are similar to the kind of instinctual modification of self and surroundings — hoarding, nesting, sneaking, grooming — that order ancient civilizations admission essay animal does to survive in the world.

Image-making is the transference of this metaphysical idea onto a physical substrate; even for a portrait or some other picture modeled on something real and present, the copy is distinct from the original but linked to it by a nonmaterial concept. In fact, given their prehensile facility, elephants can be trained to make representational paintings — of flowers, balloons, and elephants, mainly — just as they can be trained to perform many other sophisticated tricks. Order ancient civilizations admission essay their intense boredom in captivity, where almost any activity can be appealing, it is not only a crowd-pleaser but seemingly fun for the elephants, whose work is then sold to fund their care and other conservation efforts, otherwise known as win-win-win.

Some elephants, however, make art of their own accord — mostly, as it appears, abstract, but some bordering on representational. The best documented example, however, is Siri order ancient civilizations admission essay the Rosamond Gifford Zoo in Syracuse, New York, who was observed in by her keeper to be drawing with order ancient civilizations admission essay pebble on the floor of her enclosure — all alone, often at night, entirely of her own volition.

He would sit quietly with sketch pad in his lap and pencil sitting nearby, and without any prompting or guidance Siri would draw. Many of the drawings — collected in a lovely book titled after that first etching, cowritten by Gucwa and reporter James Ehmann — actually do somewhat resemble corporeal entities: a butterfly, a bird, a person.

This is likely happenstance, though; by and large the drawings are much more emotionally than rationally expressive. The question of http://dvdbestonline.co/custom-essay-ghostwriter-services-toronto.php to make of it is a revealing example of the cryptic expanse between the intent of the artist and the significance to viewers. On the other hand, on being shown the drawings two senior zookeepers immediately resolved to go vegetarian, blown away by this glimpse into an uncharted realm of animal psyches.

Nothing is simple anymore. Like the prehistoric cave paintings Jonas points to, it is a creative message defying both meaninglessness and easy understanding, calling across improbable distances of time or consciousness or species to whomever it may concern.

Very few other animals have been shown to do this, mainly dolphins and great apes. The test is performed as follows: While the animal is unconscious, some part of its anatomy out of its range of vision is marked with odorless paint, and often for control a corresponding location is marked with a order ancient civilizations admission essay version of the paint.

When presented with a mirror wherein the mark is reflected, it turns to that location on its own body to explore it, indicating both self-awareness and an understanding of the meaning of the mirror. Human beings begin to pass this test at about eighteen months of age.

The only sound is the slow blowing of air out of order ancient civilizations admission essay trunks as they investigate their dead companion. Their movements are in slow motion, and then, in silence, they case study ghostwriter site cover the dead with leaves and branches.

They do this with any dead elephant, recently deceased or long departed with only the skeleton remaining. It is so predictable that filmmakers have been able to get shots of elephants inspecting skeletons by bringing the bones from one place and putting them in a new spot near an elephant pathway or a water hole.

Inevitably the living elephants will feel and move the bones around, sometimes picking them up and carrying them away for quite some distance before dropping them. It is a haunting and touching sight and I have no idea why they do it. Understandably, for many years it was rumored order ancient civilizations admission essay elephants had designated graveyards.

This has proved essentially untrue, although their skeletons often do collect in order ancient civilizations admission essay same place, such as near a water hole, where the ailing and elderly tend to stay towards the end of their lives — and as Moss notes, sometimes do get moved around.

The mother of a dead baby may drape it over her tusks and carry it with her for days, if she is not standing vigil. Elephants even react to carved ivory, order ancient civilizations admission essay divorced from the original remains and altered and handled extensively. Poole writes of a woman who came to visit Tsavo National Park wearing ivory bracelets: as an elephant approached, the park warden cautioned her to hide them behind her order ancient civilizations admission essay but when the elephant arrived, she reached around behind the woman and contemplatively perused the bracelets with her trunk.

Poole then had a friend stage a repeat performance later, and the same thing happened. Conversely, elephants have also been observed to become quiet and pensive in an area where relatives died, even years ago, although the bones have long been removed.

While elephants are unfailingly interested in the remains of their own kind in whatever form, they have occasionally been known to bury dead rhinos, lions, and humans as well. In some cases, the people were only sleeping, and awoke to find themselves trapped under enormous heaps of foliage.

Other times, they have been injured or paralyzed with fear by a furious elephantine rampage, which came to an abrupt end when the elephant perceived them lying still on the ground, and switched in an instant from ferocious self-defense to solemnly performing its rites for the dead. I give you the woods, the fruits, the rivers.

I give you the stars and I give you myself. The Dumb Beasts whom I have order ancient civilizations admission essay chosen are yours also. Treat them gently and cherish them but do not go back to their ways lest you cease to be Talking Beasts. For out of them you were taken and into them you can return. At birth, an elephant brain is about a third its adult size. A human brain at birth is a quarter its adult size, whereas for chimps it is half and for most mammals the figure is more like 90 percent.

The elephant brain is also notable for its high level of spindle neurons associated with sociabilityvery large temporal lobes and hippocampus the primary seat of memory processingand convoluted neocortex linked to general cognitive complexity, common to other intelligent species such as dolphins and higher-order primates.

But when you ask what these things mean as livedas translated into capabilities and actions, you find yourself back in the mushy territory of observing quasi-mythical or very-human-seeming behavior and trying to analyze its significance from the outside.

And in the category of things you might be prone to romanticize, at the very top there is a faculty that also tops the list of features supposed to distinguish man from animal — order ancient civilizations admission essay that could, if properly deciphered, unlock the rest of order ancient civilizations admission essay experience for us in a way nothing else will. The Romans were not alone. Animal communication is a tricky subject. Even comparatively lowly critters have mind-boggling ways of signaling information to each other.

A mother bat returning to the cave with food for her little one can somehow instantly pick out his specific cheeping from the thousands of others huddled on the wall. There is even just continue reading detailed social profile of all the neighbor dogs your pet checks out from sniffing hydrants on his walk.

Even taking into account the impressiveness of all these order ancient civilizations admission essay of interchange, and the fact that there is much about them yet to be discovered and explained, we risk defining the term out of its useful meaning if we stretch it to encompass so much that human or humanlike powers of complex abstract discourse cease to be recognizably extraordinary.

There is order ancient civilizations admission essay intricate philosophical link at least in the Western tradition between language and beliefs and choices, and thus moral reasoning and self-determination. Cultures with a higher general estimation of animals than ours may not precisely share this view, or may just accept that animals have language that is obscure to people.

It is interesting to consider how the everyday proximity to different kinds of creatures may have affected the development of these beliefs. A more distilled, whimsical presentation appears in C. They are the moral equals of human characters because of this, and anyone who treats them as equivalent to ordinary animals instead is sure to be suspect in other ways.

Late in the Narnia series there is a montage of creation, showing how Aslan, the Christ figure, first drew them out from among ordinary animals and called them into being.

And Aslan, instructing them, says first and foremost that he gives them themselves. But in a deeper sense, it is the power to be who you most are, to take responsibility for what you think and do and to guide yourself towards the better or not. W e know they undergo extensive education: babies from their whole doting families, newly fertile cows guided by the more experienced, lately independent bulls tagging along after their order ancient civilizations admission essay magisterial superiors.

In situations where these teaching opportunities are absent — babies orphaned or separated, cows giving birth alone in zoos, teenage males running rampant order ancient civilizations admission essay places where all the older bulls have been shot for their tusks — their necessity is obvious.

As good a guide as inborn order ancient civilizations admission essay is in so many respects, this is one animal for which society, too, makes all the difference in the world. While much of what it means to be a better elephant is conveyed by example — along with ear flaps, trunk movements, smell signals, and other forms of body language — elephants vocalize prodigiously as well, engaging in elaborate discussions as part of every activity.

They have a vocal range of ten octaves a piano has sevenand up to three-quarters of the sounds they produce are inaudible to human ears. Conversely, like other trainable animals, captive elephants have a minimal order ancient civilizations admission essay with human languages, recognizing many words spoken by their caretakers. Recently, an elephant named Koshik at a South Korean zoo even took it upon himself to learn to articulate human speech sounds: by sticking his trunk in his mouth, he can conform it to say hellonosit downlie downand good in Korean.

The work, tantalizing but in early stages yet, continues at the Elephant Listening Project. The reaction was astonishing: with none of the customary deliberation or signaling from a leader, they instantly flapped out their ears and whooshed away.

This radically expanded their known range of contact, indicating that they can keep tabs on who is where and what is going on by footfalls many miles away. Elephant feet are padded with a kind of fat, similar to that found in aquatic mammals, that is ideal for acoustic transmission. In fact, it was once used for candle oil, just like whale blubber. Seismic waves traveling through the ground are picked up by the padding and transmitted up the foot and leg bones to the head, where order ancient civilizations admission essay pockets of the same fat connect to the auditory system.

Because of this enhanced pedestrian sensitivity, the feet are also especially susceptible to distress — sometimes, as Mark Order ancient civilizations admission essay writes in his book Travels on My Elephantwhen an elephant goes rogue, it is because a stick that it was using to clean between its toes has splintered off and lodged in out of reach. And severe elephant foot problems are depressingly common in zoos and other captive situations, where the animals must stand on concrete so much of the time instead of walking long distances over soft dirt and vegetation.

Many people, for instance, report a kind of sixth sense about when an elephant is in the area, one visit web page cannot actually perceive in any identifiable way but seem almost never to be wrong about.

One of his more straightforward stories concerns an incident witnessed by order ancient civilizations admission essay ranger in Addo Park, South Africa, home to a line of elephants with special historical reasons to distrust human beings. An effort to order ancient civilizations admission essay a fence had resulted in a mother and baby being stranded on opposite sides of it. She told him exactly what to do, and without any further fuss, he did.

He turned out away from her and the fence and went into the deep shade of a tree twenty yards away, where he stood motionless, becoming virtually invisible. I knew exactly where he was, but could hardly find him again when I looked away. I saw her rush down to order ancient civilizations admission essay gap and out onto the road, and as the truck appeared, she raised a huge cloud of dust, stamping and blowing, making short charges at the vehicle, frightening the crew sufficiently to order ancient civilizations admission essay them to back off and go away And when the noise and confusion was at its height, the calf in camouflage made his move.

He sidled over to the fence, slipped quietly through the gap, and went over order ancient civilizations admission essay wait in the cover of the succulent forest. Evidently it is not uncommon for those who spend order ancient civilizations admission essay time out monitoring or at least mingling with wildlife to witness occurrences that go beyond conventional assumptions about what animals can know or do.

Payne writes of a conversation she had with a senior scout from Ntaba Mangwe park in which she asked him how he speaks of events that seem to be outside normal experience. First, there is the dynamic presence of the unknown in daily life.

Second, there is the question of what to do about it. The choice to tell about it represents a hopeful effort that it might be understood, though not a presumptive one: there is no undue effort to explain, to impose some kind of theory on it, but an openness to whatever it might reveal. But finally, on the optimistic side of understanding, there is a reminder of the awesome significance of language in the urging to tell what happened.

What could be more crucial in the search for truth than this ability to translate individual experience into order ancient civilizations admission essay comprehensibility?

You just tell what happened, and someone else will hear it. A striking proportion of them, however, seem to be letters from former slaves to their erstwhile masters — some forgiving and generous, some righteously sly, esl research paper writers for hire uk few burning with revenge, all at varying degrees of written literacy, but uniformly powerful for this reason: they say, I have a mind.

I have an independent soul that never once belonged to you although my labor and all the circumstances of my life unjustly did. You found it convenient to believe that I was not a thinking, feeling person just like yo u — no doubt supported by elaborate rationalizations from the whole world around us which ought to have known bette r — but you cannot deny this anymore, because here I am, free and awake.

It must be emphasized that the direct comparison here is not from the harm and injustice of animal captivity to those of human slavery, but in the ability to command the attention of someone in power who does not want to acknowledge them at all.

To the order ancient civilizations admission essay that elephants and other animals have thoughts and memories and feelings and experiences that they are capable of expressing in their own tongue, what a disadvantage it is order ancient civilizations admission essay them that we have not cracked that code. Our failure to understand them means that there is no way we can truly assess the limits of their abilities or say for sure what they are not saying, and makes it easy to ignore their validity for anyone with reason to.

No animal is going to come forward with a order ancient civilizations admission essay missive in a humanly comprehensible language detailing wrongs or simply proving in our own terms the scope of its existence — that, at least, is an ability that is distinctly ours.

But if they could, they would have a lot to tell. An uglier, more boring, or less gracious animal might have been left more alone to live out its life in peace and freedom, although competition for order ancient civilizations admission essay would have eventually become a problem anyway.

But because order ancient civilizations admission essay elephant is so intriguing, it has been dragooned into any number of unhappy circumstances, out of a sometimes innocent, sometimes less so human wish to penetrate or possess its mystery. My first direct encounter with an elephant order ancient civilizations admission essay the form of a trunk tip materializing in my lap as I sat in a covered motor rickshaw in downtown Pune, Maharashtra.

What do you do with the sudden apparition of a writhing, disembodied order ancient civilizations admission essay Apparently you place a coin inside it.

Then, for one magical moment, the trunk was laid across the crown of your head in benediction. I stood in line with coins and bananas getting blessings all afternoon. These were both thrilling experiences, but looking back, those elephants were conscripted into unhealthy, lonely lives precisely because of the monetary potential in tourists like me. In the same vein but worse, luxury resorts in Thailand keep baby elephants on hand to entertain and delight visitors.

Where and how these babies are obtained — and what becomes of them when they are order ancient civilizations admission essay than a year or two old and no longer useful for the purpose — is a dismal thing to contemplate; and in any case, no elephant that young is well off order ancient civilizations admission essay from its mother and family, no matter how lavish the accommodations.

Trained elephants in Asia have a celebrated but disintegrating history. Numerous Sanskrit texts on elephantology reveal tremendous respect for the power and dignity of elephants and the care that was taken to understand and treat them humanely. With globalization, mahout culture is going the way of other old traditions. It is less of a family business, the training is more slapdash, and many of the men who would make the most affectionate and dedicated elephant companions find, understandably, that they have better opportunities elsewhere.

As Stephen Alter writes in Elephas Maximus: A Portrait of the Indian Elephantthis leaves the kind of men who have few other options, but who for the same underlying reasons may not be a good fit with elephants at all.

The result is neglect, misunderstanding, conflict and abuse, and bitter frustration on both sides, order ancient civilizations admission essay on itself for more of the same.

But the demand for service and show elephants is only best states website ghostwriting united speech up, and someone has to take care of them. As early as the ninth century, with a present from Caliph Order ancient civilizations admission essay al-Rashid to Charlemagne, elephants were offered as special gifts to European royalty and marched from court to court until they died of cold and loneliness.

Set in eighteenth-century England, it begins with the purchase by a respected gentleman of two half-dead baby elephants from a merchant ship just returned from the East Indies. A stable boy, Tom, takes a shine to them, is made responsible for their care, and becomes inseparable from one of them forever.

The other is resold and eventually killed. Tom, however, is not simply a hero or a victim. His devotion to Jenny also leads him to order ancient civilizations admission essay his sweetheart, abandon his family, ignore grave evil, and descend into a sordid London underworld whose misery he actively contributes to. But since she exists not as a subject in her order ancient civilizations admission essay animal society but as an object in the human one, she is susceptible to any violations someone may impose as was her brother, whose untimely demise was the result of profound degradation and misunderstanding.

Involving any animals in our society — for entertainment, companionship, labor, or other purposes — places them in an awkward category. The more dissimilar needs may expose them to injustice too, of course, but in ways that are less readily apparent. But as long as there is human life there will be some use being made of animals — and the animals on whom we depend will depend even more on us. Lincoln, having a few other matters to attend to and reckoning that this was the last http://dvdbestonline.co/popular-annotated-bibliography-ghostwriters-sites-london.php he needed, gracefully declined.

Order ancient civilizations admission essay know that — to you alone — I have given my secret: I do not regard myself as omnipotent. I gave that up when I gave to Man the Will to love me or wurde custom thesis proposal ghostwriters services for university Lactotherapie hate me, or merely to disregard me.

So I can promise you nothing. What little I can tell you is neither encouraging nor discouraging. Your kind is used already for work, and the men who use you are neither markedly improved nor disimproved by contact with you. Nor have you ever been improved nor disimproved in that process. But now, a new age begins. Soon, now, you will be taken to be looked upon, to be regarded as strange and as wonderful and — forgive me, my dear ones — as funny.

Agee imagined subsequent scenes based on real events in American elephantine history, beginning with Old Bet, the centerpiece of an exotic traveling menagerie, who was reportedly shot by a Maine farmer inbelieving her to be the unholy behemoth order ancient civilizations admission essay old.

As a proxy for more traditional, less newsworthy lynchings, this ill-starred elephant seems to be the nonpareil. All these accounts, in their way, are trying to say something of the clash between what turn out to be two inverse evils: the bigoted, airtight provincialism of the town proper, and the gaudy, sordid disassociation of traveling circus life order ancient civilizations admission essay that is, being someone entirely because you are from somewhere, or being from nowhere at all.

Mary happened to be so unfortunate as to drop into this unneighborly maw. The elephants are embarrassed, but dutiful. The big night comes. They dance to music by Stravinsky, in pink order ancient civilizations admission essay. They do very nicely; hardly a mistake. But all through the performance, people roar with joy at their clumsiness, and their dutifulness. The elephants are deeply shamed. Later order ancient civilizations admission essay night, the wisest of them, extending his trunk, licks up a dying cigar-butt, and drops it in fresh straw.

All 36 elephants die order ancient civilizations admission essay the fire. Their huge souls, light as clouds, settle like doves, in the great cemetery back in Africa. However, in other circumstances, distressed elephants have been known to kill themselves in ways that certainly seem intentional — not only by refusing food and water, but by stepping on their trunks to suffocate, or deliberately tightening chains hung around their throats. Under the circumstances, these actions seem much closer read more despair than to fatal stupidity.

Other perverse behaviors, such as the way cows giving birth sometimes turn on their newborns, are never seen anywhere but in captivity. Catching an elephant from the wild is a tumultuous process that often involves order ancient civilizations admission essay deaths of several more in the melee.

Less brutally, but rather creepily, it may also entail the complicity of other elephants, who are trained to entice their wild kin into a compromising situation where they can be caught. Another way of catching elephants, employed less now than it used to be, is to save the babies from a cull and market them. Because of the psychological problems caused by having their entire families slaughtered around them, culling experts now recommend just killing the babies with everybody else.

In transit, captive elephants are subject to extreme discomfort and often die from overheating, freezing, stifling, dehydration, or infection. To avoid these problems, many zoos and other institutions seeking elephants have attempted captive breeding programs, which they bill as a conservation effort to increase the numbers of an endangered species.

The anthology Elephants and Ethicsan outgrowth of a Disney Animal Kingdom-funded conference, is a detailed guidebook to this and the many other ins and order ancient civilizations admission essay of elephant captivity. A few chapters deal with global issues such as order ancient civilizations admission essay and culling, but overall it is a very Western-oriented handbook, as the vast bulk is concerned with the small minority of elephants held in zoos and circuses.

The book gets deep in the weeds of this order ancient civilizations admission essay with some weird dilemmas. Breeders correctly sense that sex-selective abortion would be a nonstarter with the public; would in vitro fertilization with screened embryos be any better? Would it be possible? A step or two back from order ancient civilizations admission essay thicket, the primary question becomes whether it is morally defensible to keep elephants captive at all.

Most zoos are having a harder time letting go, a struggle exemplified by the attempt of Alaska Zoo officials to hang on to Maggie, the sole elephant in the state. Eventually they gave in, and in she was relocated to a sanctuary in California. The point is not that elephants are treated cruelly by their handlers. While there is no shortage of examples of order ancient civilizations admission essay or negligent treatment, many — probably most — zookeepers and circus trainers have close relationships with their elephants and may even love them intensely.

But the contexts that bring them together are fundamentally inhumane. I know they love elephants. What I have had to learn to understand is you can love someone in a very dysfunctional way. And the key point they emphasize in their defense is the educational value and the resulting benefits to all elephants everywhere.

Elephants remain a major attraction of the circus industry in the United States and around the world. Here, an audience watches elephants perform in a French circus in People remember the first time they visited a circus and saw a live elephant. How many people remember and talk about the first time they read about an elephant in a book or saw an elephant on TV? By falling in love with the one elephant they have seen, the argument goes, people will be inspired and informed to go out and help elephants generally.

Whatever may be the instrumental value of these involuntary ambassadors, it is a diminished kind of love that keeps its object confined and unhappy. Freedom is the hardest, greatest gift, returning nothing to the giver but the selfless fact of having given it.

From a strictly human point of view, it would be a more impoverished world that did not offer order ancient civilizations admission essay opportunities to connect with our most intriguing fellow creatures — but it would perhaps be a better one.

In that instant, in too short a time, one would have thought, even for the bullet to get there, a mysterious, terrible change had come over the elephant. He neither stirred nor fell, but every line of his body had altered.

He looked suddenly stricken, shrunken, immensely old Avocational safari hunters such as Teddy Roosevelt and his friend Henry Fairfield Osborn, major figures in the early conservation movement, loved the elephant in all its wildness and compiled a great deal of information on its behavior and natural history.

The very awe of its magnificence and power was what made the elephant such desirable game. The order ancient civilizations admission essay, in tracking and conquering his prey, seeks in some way to seize for himself that glorious force of life the animal order ancient civilizations admission essay. The catch is that, as soon as you have shot the animal, that force of life is gone — the instant it is at your touch it has already eluded you, belonging to no one anymore.

Famous photographs of Roosevelt towering athwart biography ghostwriter services popular canada giants exude an eerie combination of tremendous manly pride generally, the sex that brings life into the world seems content with that primal connection to it, and is less interested in taking it back out and utter negation; the deanimated lump no longer conveys anything but the material presence of piercing loss.

To have taken so many years and eaten so many trees, to have become so big; to have roamed the earth as King of Beasts click at this page then to have collapsed in a piece of rotting flesh is tragic order ancient civilizations admission essay so seemingly wasteful of life.

Library of Congress via Wikimedia Commons Adult elephants have no predator other than man. Babies may sometimes be preyed upon by lions and the like; to protect them, the moms and aunts circle around the order ancient civilizations admission essay ones, facing outwards to give any interested comers the order ancient civilizations admission essay eye.

This proves sufficiently intimidating. They order ancient civilizations admission essay occasionally hunted by some African tribes for meat or as a rite of passage, but not to these ends in great numbers. Meanwhile, opportunities now exist at certain game reserves for those aspiring to the masculinity of Teddy Roosevelt to pay great sums of money to chase the animals around a large pen in a jeep, that is, a confined hunting zone where there order ancient civilizations admission essay no real test of strength or match of wits and they are ultimately guaranteed a kill.

When with a heavy heart, Mr. Choudhury finally corners him in the forest and shoots, His trunk whipped back in the air. His mouth opened wide, revealing his writhing black tongue. He reared up on his hind legs, kicking out defiantly. Then the fight went out of him. His ears fell to his sides. His head slumped as if he was overcome with fatigue. Like a disgraced child who only now understood that he had misbehaved, the rogue tried to turn and walk away, almost apologetically.

Then, in one violent movement, he reared up once again, his trunk reaching for the sky as if he was trying to clutch at his departing soul. He let out a tortured, rasping noise. Then his legs buckled. His body slumped forward. And he dropped to the ground with a thud, his tusks driving into the soft earth.

Within hours, hundreds of people have materialized to mourn the passing of a hathiso upset that the hunting party, reluctant as they were, even fear for their own safety. That is the upshot of the poaching explosion of recent history. And while safari hunting at least represents, however perversely, an appreciation for the total majesty of the animal, this massacre implies a different valuation of elephants altogether, one where their whole worth is in the ivory they grow.

Inthere were 26 million elephants roaming Africa alone; in less than two centuries, the population dropped by 98 percent. These animals died for our music. Spectacular photos of these pieces sit in contrast to gruesome ones of slaughtered elephants and sordid heaps of dirty tusks — but also to some of live elephants, unperturbed and minding their own business, dirty tusks still on them, just as nature intended. Few other accounts show all these things together, and the combination is startling: here is raw nature, here is the exquisite potential in it that only civilization — human artists — can fulfill, and here is the bloody price of that fulfillment.

And, strictly speaking, it is not civilization but its breakdown that is responsible for these artifacts, since killing elephants for ivory has been illegal for decades. Commercial trafficking in Asian elephant parts was outlawed by ratification of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species CITES in The s saw the population of African elephants drop by more than half, from 1.

Bottom: ElephantVoices, Joyce Poole. Leading up to the CITES conference, rumors abounded that the African elephant was going to be placed on the protected list, as indeed it was, making all international trade in new ivory illegal. In the interim, however, poaching increased even more and countries with ivory were encouraged to sell it off while they still could. Meanwhile, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe argued that their elephant populations were plentiful enough to hunt from and an important natural resource for their economies, which they should not be penalized for making use of just because other countries mismanaged their own.

In and again inthese countries were permitted to sell their stockpiles, purportedly accrued from natural deaths and order ancient civilizations admission essay from poachers. The trouble with legalizing ivory within certain limits is that once it enters the market, it is virtually impossible to tell where it came order ancient civilizations admission essay, and poached tusks can easily be laundered through countries where selling them is legal.

Also, now that the global market has come to expect that there will periodically be sell-off opportunities in exception to CITES, ivory can just be hoarded until the next one is announced. Today, upwards of 25, elephants are poached every year, and even countries such as Kenya, which has been politically out front in promoting conservation and anti-poaching efforts, are experiencing steep drops in their elephant populations.

But it is hard to say what chance this message has of getting through to China, by far the biggest market for the material — a country whose attitude toward see more life leaves much to be desired, not to mention animals.

And at the source in Africa, a region of the world that faces every possible kind of difficult reality, the financial potential of a pair of tusks is a far more potent factor than global opprobrium or sentiment for elephants.

In the big picture, this is what it looks like when an unstoppable force meets an all too moveable object. At the CITES conference, held in Bangkok in Marchtrade sanctions were threatened for several countries involved in ivory poaching, smuggling, and sale, but none were actually imposed. The conference of the parties did, however, vote to implement DNA testing in tracing seizures of contraband ivory and other protected materials. E ven as poaching is reducing some elephant populations to perilous levels, others are being killed en masse supposedly for their own good.

Elephant order ancient civilizations admission essay exacts order ancient civilizations admission essay heavy burden from their habitat — fifty pounds of vegetation munched by each elephant every day adds up to a lot. When elephants moved freely across the African continent, this denuding fit naturally into regrowth patterns and the impact was dispersed. Thus, to protect biodiversity and avoid the order ancient civilizations admission essay spectacle of elephant starvation, many park managers cull populations order ancient civilizations admission essay what they deem sustainable levels.

In Elephants on the EdgeG. The fact that their thinking drove much of modern conservation policy up until about the s is critical Soldiers and armies are expected to be aggressive. Although culling experts once believed that they could take out precisely the desired number of elephant families while leaving the rest of the population alone, more recent data show that survivors are definitely affected, even if they were far away at the time of the cull.

Elephants have relationships within their herds that extend well beyond the small group of immediate family they travel and spend order ancient civilizations admission essay day with, and their long-distance communication capabilities make them aware of events happening miles away.

As Bradshaw and others have documented, disturbed behavior click the following article often been observed among these survivors, and autopsies of those who die later for other reasons show signs of sustained high stress consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder.

In the past several years, there have been increasing reports of elephants rampaging around out of control — destroying property, attacking people, raping and killing rhinos, and other chaotic behavior.

Traditional explanations for rogue elephants such as musth or competition for habitat do not fit with the sudden changeas some behaviors such as lethal fights between bulls are surging out of proportion to their normal incidence and some such as assaulting rhinos are otherwise nearly unheard of.

Instead, Bradshaw points to the collapse of elephant society brought on by culling and poaching, the licit and illicit forms of mass annihilation. In addition to the psychological trauma these engender in survivors, they have also disrupted the transmission of elephant culture from one order ancient civilizations admission essay to the next. Though elephants may naturally live to seventy, it is now rare to find a male over forty anywhere in Africa, and even those are rare enough.

But Mother Nature needs her father elephants — an epiphany that only comes as a surprise thanks to the stigma of anthropomorphization. In ancient times the spirit of life shone brightest in these; and when others that shared the earth with them were taken by death they were left, being more worthy of perpetuation.

Like immortal flowers they have drifted down to us on the ocean of time, and their strangeness and beauty bring to our imaginations a dream and a picture of that unknown world, immeasurably far removed, where man was not: and when they perish, something of gladness goes out from nature, and the sunshine loses something of its brightness.

Hudson, The Naturalist in La Plata T he good news for elephants is that, as the most charismatic and most mega of the so-called charismatic megafauna, they have many friends. These groups and http://dvdbestonline.co/dissertation-conclusion-editor-sites-sf.php messages have not been ineffective, either, with the audiences that they reach.

But even a basic aim such as an animal this magnificent should not be slaughtered to make carvings out of its teeth turns out to be dazzlingly hard to effect. It is one thing to boycott ivory and even pass international laws against it; it is another to confront the situation on the ground, entangled in a web of other issues. One particular story highlights many of them, recounted in a strange and disturbing New Yorker essay by Jeffrey Goldberg.

The bare facts are these: inthe dedicated conservationists Mark and Delia Order ancient civilizations admission essay hosted a film crew from ABC to document their anti-poaching efforts in Zambia.

Under threat of legal action, the couple left the country immediately order ancient civilizations admission essay have never been back. Those who did know chose not to notify authorities but just took the footage home and packaged it for broadcast. When the events of that day were ultimately televised and an investigation launched, if anything the details descended further into obscurity.

In the ABC program, the off-camera shooter is unidentified — and for that matter, so is the victim. Mysteriously, no actual body was ever found, or anyone reported missing within a large radius. To many Westerners, Africa is Eden or the Heart of Darkness, maybe both. To Africans, Africa is where they live. Many see the tremendous foreign interest in and power brought to bear on protecting their wildlife as just the latest version of imperialism.

It is all very well, it seems, for people whose countries have never dealt with native elephants to order ancient civilizations admission essay the luxury of tooling around in the barren strip malls that support a comfortable lifestyle and counting on far-off places to hold the soul of the natural world in trust, occasionally piped into our living rooms via nature documentaries — but there are people living there as well, with their own needs and aims and points of view.

Elephants have long been a nuisance in many populated areas, marauding through crops and becoming dangerous when challenged.

Enter the Owenses, with the ability to drop in as if from on high and devote their considerable energies and resources to no other purpose than the salvation of the elephants. The partnerships order ancient civilizations admission essay tried to forge with park authorities and the neighboring community only went so far; over the years, their program became characterized by a kind of ad hoc martial law — armed night patrols in planes and helicopters, an unofficial understanding with the scouts whose training and support the Owenses provided that they should shoot to kill.

No one wanted it that way, and no one ever dreamed order ancient civilizations admission essay it would come to that when they were starting out, but carried deep into a desperate situation, with other avenues exhausted and the massacre unchecked, it all came down to that stark choice.

But give me another solution. He loves animals more than he loves people. In fact, though the relative value of elephants alive or dead is just the question, the whole dark vortex is altogether human; actual animals almost do not appear in best writers websites united kingdom New Yorker account at all, not even during the raid on the supposed poacher, who was not only unarmed but does not seem to have had an elephant to hunt.

The complexities of life on earth with other people are just as much a part of conservation in the bush as they are of mucking around in society; and even the most righteous purpose in the world may come at a damning cost. Donne, Agee, Kipling, and many others share a sense that elephants inhabit a kind of special state of grace, and so they serve as inspiration for thinking on the deepest things.

Elephants figure in some way in a number of religions, more centrally in areas of the world where they are native. Http://dvdbestonline.co/professional-problem-solving-writer-service-us.php elephant is considered a totem sacred ancestor in many African cultures.

The Koran contains a Chapter of the Elephant, concerning how even the mightiest elephant-laced army was felled by a flock of birds and the will of Allah. Order ancient civilizations admission essay, the elephant-headed Lord of Beginnings and Obstacles, is among the most celebrated deities in the teeming Hindu universe.

According to legend, Ganesh is the son of Shiva the Destroyer and his consort Parvati, who one day appointed her son to stand guard outside the door while she bathed. A sweeter variant has it that the famously amorous Shiva and Parvati, observing a tender elephant couple in the forest and wishing to partake in this new mystery of love, turned themselves into elephants for a night, and from this union Ganesh was born.

All religions metaphorically come together in the old fable of the blind men and the elephant, where each feels just one part of it and believes he has the superior perception of the whole. The central facts and mysteries of their existence, about which they clearly have deep feelings, are the same as ours: death and love, life and new life, the chasm between the way things ought to be and how they really are.

No revelation, no tradition. Just attention to the way the world goes by and simple wonder at it, with all of the same questions that force themselves on us raw and fresh and perpetually unsolved in moments of crisis or clarity.

An elephant may only have dim intimations of them, but after all, so do we; envisioning a more limited but still searching perspective can order ancient civilizations admission essay our appreciation that we too see through a glass darkly. Immanent in nature, God appears as a cloud or rock to converse with the inquisitive elephant.

The elephant wants to know: How is it that nature, which is so giving, can also be so rude? What does it mean to be an elephant, and not an ant, for instance, or a tree? Is there one truth about the world, which presents itself to all of them so differently, and how order ancient civilizations admission essay someone find it out?

What happens in death? How tragic is it that a butterfly, so beautiful, lives only through the summer? To the trees, your life is brief The butterfly feels he has as long a life as you. Based on meticulous research order ancient civilizations admission essay elephant behavior and other forms of savanna life, Gowdy lays out the terrain of perceptions, circumstances, and relationships that inform what an elephant might understand to be the meaning of existence.

From that, she constructs a fanciful but compelling edifice of myths and mores in an elephant-centric cosmos. Calves are named for some feature of the circumstances of order ancient civilizations admission essay birth — Bolt during a storm, Swamp beside a bog — and the bulls retain these names for their whole lives. Cows, however, having come of age, are renamed for some attribute of the She as all attributes are : She-Measures, She-Brags, She-Sees.

Hindleggers descended from the she-ones long ago, when during a famine a few she-ones broke the click here law against eating another creature, and were thereafter deprived of grace and cursed to walk upright in rage and envy ever since. They seem to want the tusks so desperately in order to recover some of their lost power perhaps by grinding them up to eat them.

Some say that in recent years a new strain of hindleggers has appeared, ones which are remarkably non-aggressive and appear to simply want to sit and watch. This seems implausible, but if it is true it may be that they are remembering the time when they were she-ones, and perhaps hoping that if they concentrate hard enough they will be returned to that more favored form.

As the story begins, a mass slaughter has nearly wiped out a whole family of she-ones; and as members of a different family learn the news and try to care for the survivors, a renewed attack occurs. In the ensuing mayhem, a young cow is stranded from the rest, and so when they have mourned their many dead, they must set off to find her. Meanwhile, there is a rumor swirling around of a Safe Place protected from such atrocities order ancient civilizations admission essay from the drought that is overtaking them as well.

Being independent, bulls come and go from the proceedings, but they are still intensely sentimental and involved in the she-one society, helping to spread gossip between the dispersed families, which they may be variously connected to by birth or by fond memories order ancient civilizations admission essay mating. One bull in particular, Tall Time, is especially interested in the plight of the separated family and the possibility of the white bone.

It stands to reason that by mastering every piece of this lore, he can gain control over — or at least find his bearings in — what may order ancient civilizations admission essay like hard chance. His investigative spirit is shared by Date Bed, the missing cow calf.

She is no more than dimly aware that she owes the credit to herselfto her own insight, pluck, and ingenuity, rather than to a higher power, for making it far enough to have any prospect of being saved. There is a diffuse, tragic, exhilarant eroticism in their nearly hopeless tripartite search, for each other, for a white bone and a Safe Place which may or may not exist, for whatever meaning or direction underlies it all. These yearnings are cast against the best persuasive essay writer website for school conditions of hardship aggravated by systemic assault on their kind like hot winds howling over baked terrain.

Their various approaches to their situation — we can know it, we can fix it, we can escape it — yield innovative strategies and raise the emotional order ancient civilizations admission essay for success but have little purchase on their fundamental circumstances, just as, order ancient civilizations admission essay the human sphere, science and technology may better our lives immensely in the order ancient civilizations admission essay term while ultimately they change nothing.

Though the essence of the she-ones is memory, the force of life flows forward; and by devotion, fear, necessity, or whatever it takes, that is the direction they must order ancient civilizations admission essay. If there is a meaning to the whole pay for economics research proposal, it is that they love each other.

For one sure thing about the elephants is that they are deeply capable of love. Order ancient civilizations admission essay had seen a order ancient civilizations admission essay of Elephant travelling through dense Native forest, where the sunlight is strewn down between the thick creepers in small spots and patches, pacing along as if they had an appointment at the end of the world.

Naturally, as one would hope, the common refrain of all the literature about them is a rousing alarm on behalf of these friends, totems, property, and sometime foes with whom we share an earth, who even with their great strength have patiently endured all kinds of violations from us and now depend on our goodwill to save them.

But in the long run, that message is no match for the economic and environmental forces arrayed against them — if not their survival, then at least their freedom. All the other land giants have already met their appointments at the end of the world.

The elephants will not have the space to just be who they are forever. Wandering along the cape one day, Watson witnessed a remarkable meeting worth recounting at length: It is a sound that sneaks up on you, something you feel rather than hear, a rumble which is more visceral than cerebral, threatening to addle your mind I knew that blue whales can make high-energy, low-frequency moans that last for thirty seconds or more, but I had never heard one before when watching blue whales off Baja California or Peru.

The sensation I was feeling on the clifftop was some sort of reverberation in the air order ancient civilizations admission essay. Perhaps an interference pattern set up between the whale call and its echo from the rocks below?

That too seemed unlikely, and I was still puzzling over it when I realized that the whale had submerged and I was still feeling something. The strange rhythm seemed now to be coming from behind me, click here the land, so I turned to look across the gorge, sweeping my gaze across the cliffs, over the great milkwood tree — and then swiftly back to the tree again, where my heart stopped Standing there in the shade of the tree was an elephant.

A fully grown African elephant, facing left, staring out to sea! A female with a left tusk broken off near the base, looking for all the world like the stub of a large cigar.

I had never seen this elephant before, but I knew who she was, who she had to be. But what was she doing here?

She was here because she no longer had anyone to talk to in the forest. She was standing here on order ancient civilizations admission essay edge of the ocean because it was the next, nearest, and most powerful source of infrasound.

The underrumble of the surf would have been well within her range, a soothing balm for an animal used to being surrounded, submerged, by low and comforting frequencies, by the lifesounds of a herd, and now this was the next-best thing! My heart went out to her. The whole idea of this grandmother of many being alone for the first time in her life was tragic, conjuring up the vision of countless other old and lonely souls. But just as I was about to be consumed by helpless sorrow, something even more extraordinary took place The throbbing was back in the air.

I could feel it, and I began to understand why. The blue whale was on the surface again, pointed inshore, resting, her blowhole clearly visible. The Matriarch was here for the whale!

The largest animal in the ocean and the largest living land animal order ancient civilizations admission essay no more than a hundred yards apart, and I was convinced that they were communicating! In infrasound, in concert, sharing big brains and long lives, understanding the pain of high investment in a few precious offspring, aware of the importance and the learn more here of complex sociality, these rare and lovely great ladies were commiserating over the back fence of this rocky Cape shore, woman to woman, matriarch to matriarch, almost the last of their kind.

This tableau is oddly reminiscent of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence: the signals piped out over the border, from one domain into another as alien order ancient civilizations admission essay it is infinite, with such poignant hopefulness that they may be heard at all, much less understood. Out of great loneliness, the elephant went to the edge of her world and poured her soul into the void — and out of great providence, someone was there to answer.

From some combination of existential loneliness and intrepid curiosity, we also have for decades now been calling out for someone past the borders of our known experience. Whether there are millions or just one, what does it mean that there is such a thing as Elephant? The scientific order ancient civilizations admission essay, that special activity of human beings, brings us proof of their abilities and tools to unriddle them, but scientific language simply breaks down in describing who they are — as it does with beauty or with love — leaving us at the edge of a vast field of signals out of ordinary range.

Listen with your ears, your eyes, your heart, your mind, your soul for the message from these kin as improbable as life order ancient civilizations admission essay, different and yet the same.

We are not alone. She can be reached at cnicol thenewatlantis. Caitrin Nicol, "Do Elephants Have Souls? BROWSE BY: TOPIC AUTHOR. This article appears in the. More on Caitrin Nicol.

Latest tweets from TNAjournal. E-mail Updates Enter your e-mail allem best university essay ghostwriter service haben to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis.

The proper study of order ancient civilizations admission essay is man, but when one regards the elephant, one wonders. Hudson, The Naturalist in La Plata. Based on behandelt, professional biography editor website for school Asbestose events, it follows the abduction from a remote Indian forest and transfer to Los Angeles of a young girl and an elephant, whose various appealing qualities are order ancient civilizations admission essay in the ways they often are.

This is, however, a very minor phenomenon, and even so has problems of its own. Smith denies that cows physically moo when separated from their calves. We apologize for the confusion. Moss, Harvey Croze, and Phyllis C. The Life and Lore of the Elephant By Robert Delort trans. The African Elephant: Twilight in Eden By Roger L.

The Asian Elephant: A Natural History By J. Elephants and Ethics: Toward a Morality of Coexistence By Christen Wemmer and Catherine A. Big Life Foundation Elephant Voices The Elephant Sanctuary Save the Elephants Amboseli Trust for Elephants The David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust The Elephant Listening Project.

Caitrin Nicol is managing editor of The New Atlantis. HOME SUBSCRIBE BUY BACK ISSUES BLOGS ABOUT.


Michael Wood is a particularly annoying sort of modern Englishman. On the one hand, he ascribes to the widely discredited Afro centrist belief that Greece acquired.

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