Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca

Although the daguerreotype was capable of capturing fine detail, the highly polished surface popular dissertation introduction writer site ca a mirror effect when viewed at an oblique angle and was easily scratched and tarnished.

For this reason, daguerreotypes were typically protected under popular dissertation introduction writer site ca metal matcovered by a plate of glass, and enclosed in a case see these examples.

Early examples are valued by collectors because each is uniquenot having been made from a negative. For other examples, see the online exhibition s Secrets of the Dark Chamber Smithsonian American Art Museum and The Dawn of Photography: French Daguerreotypes, Metropolitan Museum of Artor try the Daguerreian Society.

See also : ambrotypecomposite daguerreotypeand tintype. Most databases used in libraries are catalog s, periodical index es, abstracting service s, and full-text reference resources leased annual ly under licensing agreement s that limit access to registered borrower s and library staff.

Compare with data bank. See popular dissertation introduction writer site ca : archival databasebibliographic databaseembedded databasemetadatabaseand niche database. In a more general sense, any numeric value or geometric surface, lineor point that serves as a base or reference for other quantities SARBC Map and Compass Glossary.

In the broadest sense, a thing that is given or known to be factual, upon which a reasoned argument or calculation is based. Also, an assumption or premiss from which inferences are subsequently made OED. Also, a calendarin print or electronic formatof forthcoming events celebrations, performance s, meetings, workshops, seminars, etc.

Also used in reference to a calendar designed as a personal organizer. Click here to see the daybook of President John F. In archivesthe process of removing records or documents from official custodyundertaken after careful consideration, usually as the result of a decision to transfer the material to another custodian or because the legal owner desires its return or the material is found upon re appraisal to be of doubtful popular dissertation introduction writer site ca or inappropriate for the collection.

Synonymous with permanent withdrawal. In aqueous deacidificationwater is used as the solvent carrier of the alkaline agent; in nonaqueous london essay critical proofreading sitesorganic solvents are used as the carrier.

In vapor phase deacidificationdocument s and the page s of volume s are interleaved with treated sheet s popular dissertation introduction writer site ca emit an alkaline vapor, a method now rarely used because it produces popular dissertation introduction writer site ca vapors and does not leave an alkaline reserve Richard Pearce-Moses, A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology.

Mass deacidification is the shipment of a quantity of document s to a central location for processing, usually in small batches rather than individually. The term is also used for password -protected Web content available only to authorized user s members, subscriber s, etc.

Also refers to the distinctness of a printed or photograph ic image. In nonprint media composed of multiple layers compact disc s, DVD s, photograph ic filmmagnetic tapeetc. In computing, the click here of datausually measured in bit s or byte s, that can be stored in or on a given storage medium, such as a memory chip or just click for source disk.

A floppy disk can be single-densitydouble-densityhigh-densityor extra-high-density. A disk drive designed to support the specific density level is required. In photograph y, the relative difference between the lightest and darkest portions of the image, as measured by proofreading professional states united masters essay services instrument called a densitometer.

Also, the relative amount opacity of the material forming the image on exposed photographic film usually silver oxide which popular dissertation introduction writer site ca the amount of light transmitted through the negative. Not all libraries have such a policy. Also, the legal requirement that one copy of any unpublished work accompany an application for copyright registration.

In the United States, two deposit copies of the best edition of a published work are required for copyright registration. Click here to learn more about the deposit requirements of the U. In indexinga combination of the average number of index popular dissertation introduction writer site ca s subject heading s or descriptor s assigned to document s indexed and the specificity of the term s used ASIS Thesaurus of Information Science and LibrarianshipInformation Today, Also refers to any electronic or electromagnetic machine or hardware component.

Computer peripheral s printerscannerdisk drive s, etc. Developed and updated continuously for the past years, most recently by a member international Editorial Policy Committee EPCDDC is the most widely used classification system in the world. According to OCLCit has been translated into 30 language s and is used bylibraries in countries.

The national bibliographies of 60 countries are organized according to DDC. In the United States, public and school libraries use DDC, but most academic and research libraries use Library of Congress Classification LCC popular dissertation introduction writer site ca it is more hospitable.

The abridged edition ADCintended for general collection s of 20, or fewer titles, is a logical truncation of the notational and structural hierarchy of the full edition. OCLC has also developed WebDewey for classifying Web page s and other electronic resource s. Click here to connect to the DDC Web site maintained by OCLC and here to read OCLC's Introduction to Dewey Decimal Classification. See also : Universal Decimal Classification. In cartographythe term is sometimes applied to a schematic map characterized by highly simplified representation click here to see a diagram of the subway system in Lisbon, Portugal.

See also : block diagram and fence diagram. Also refers to a small notebook in which the consecutive date s of the popular dissertation introduction writer site ca are listed, with blank space for scheduling appointments, meetings, important deadlines, etc.

In film and videoa work consisting of footage taken popular dissertation introduction writer site ca the filmmaker's daily life, including long unedited or edited-in-camera sections example : Filmmaker: A Diary by George Lucas [].

A language dictionary lists the words of a language in alphabetical order, giving orthographysyllabicationpronunciation, etymologydefinitionand popular dissertation introduction writer site ca usage.

Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca dictionaries also include synonym s, antonym s, and brief biographical and gazetteer information. In ghostwriter custom kingdom united website academic essay unabridged dictionary popular dissertation introduction writer site ca, an attempt is made to be comprehensive in the number of term s included example : Webster's Third New International Dictionary.

An abridged dictionary provides a more limited selection of words and usually less information in each entry Webster's New College Dictionary. In a visual dictionaryeach term is illustrated. See also : desk dictionary and pocket dictionary. Dictionaries are known to have developed from Latin glossaries as early as the 13th century. Dictionaries of the English language, limited to difficult words, were first compiled in the 17th century.

Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Languagepublished inwas the first to match in scope those produced popular dissertation introduction writer site ca the academies of Continental Europe. The most famous contemporary example is the Oxford English Annotated bibliography writers for hire liverpoolconceived in Britain click at this page by the Philological Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca. Some English language dictionaries are limited to a specialized vocabulary example : Dictionary of American Slang.

In librariesat least one large printed dictionary is usually displayed open on a dictionary stand. Smaller portable edition s are shelved in the reference section. Compare with concordance and thesaurus. See also : lexicographypolyglot dictionaryreverse dictionaryand rhyming dictionary. This Web site is an example of an electronic dictionary. OneLook is a metadictionary that indexes English words and phrase s in over online dictionaries, including Merriam-Webster OnLinewith translation into other languages.

Click here to connect to the Yahoo! Also refers to a periodical or index containing excerpt s or condensations of works from various sources, usually arranged in some kind of order example : Book Review Digest. Some digests have been digitized example : International Digest of Health Legislation published by the World Health Organization. The term is also used in a general sense to refer to the wave of information technology generated by the invention of the microcomputer in the second half of the 20th century, as in the expressions " digital divide " and " digital library.

The DOI is persistentmeaning that the identification of a digital object does not change even if ownership of or rights source the entity are transferred. It is also actionablemeaning that clicking on it in a Web browser display will redirect the user to the content. The DOI is also interoperabledesigned to function in past, present, and future digital technologies. The registration and resolver system for the DOI is run by the International Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca Foundation IDF.

CrossRef is a collaborative citation link ing service that uses the DOI. Click here to learn more about the DOI. The Copyright Clearance Center CCC provided one of the earliest solutions used by libraries to obtain permission s. Since the late s, a variety of models have emerged to facilitate the complex relationships and transactions among rightspopular dissertation introduction writer site ca s, and the parties that produce and use information, including encryption schemes and plug-in s.

ContentGuard has based its software approach on XrML e X tensible r ights M arkup L anguageoriginally developed at Xerox PARC, which the company hopes will become the open standard for interoperabilitygiving customers a common platform for receiving content under conditions that protect copyright. Unfortunately for consumers and libraries"quick fix" DRM solutions often fail to distinguish between copyright piracy and fair usemay undermine the first sale provision of U.

For example, many e-book edition popular dissertation introduction writer site ca completely forbid copy ing, even for work s in the public domain. Carrie Russell, copyright specialist for the American Library Association ALAalso contends that some DRM popular dissertation introduction writer site ca threaten "to reduce the functionality of consumer and library electronic equipment, including desktop computer s" Library JournalAugust Click here to learn more about DRM, courtesy of Wikipedia.

The Electronic Privacy Information Center EPIC provides a Web page on Digital Rights Management and Privacy. See also : DRM-free. Mass digitization is the conversion of texts or images to digital popular dissertation introduction writer site ca on a very large scale using robotic equipment capable of scanning hundreds of page s per hour see this example.

After raising billions of dollars in an initial public stock learn more here, Google and five major research libraries the University of Michigan, Harvard University, Stanford University, Oxford University, and the New York Public Library announced in December plans to digitally scan over 10 million unique book s over the next decade and make them searchable onlinethe largest digitization project ever attempted.

Since the announcement, publisher s and other stakeholders have expressed concerns and raised issues about the legal, social, economic, and other impacts of the project and similar initiatives that will inevitably follow. British spelling is digitisation. See also : book digitizer. Also refers to picture s or designs painted or carved on the inside surfaces of two tablets hinged or mounted to form a single workoften devotional images used as altarpieces see this 13th-century example in ivory and this 14th-century example in silver giltcourtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In medieval Europe, triptych s were sometimes used for the same purpose--images on three tablets hinged so that the outer tablets folded over the center Behandlung custom phd essay proofreading site united states fast see the Stavelot Triptychcourtesy of the Morgan Library.

See also : polyptych. An Internet directory is an online service that indexes publicly accessible Web site s and other Internet resources, usually by subject according to a hierarchical classification system example : Yahoo! INFOMINE is a searchable directory that indexes only scholarly Internet resource collections. The WWW Virtual Library is an example of a metadirectory directory of directories. In data storage and retrieval, a catalog of the file s stored on the hard disk of a computer, or on some other storage mediumusually organized for ease of access in a hierarchical tree of subdirectories.

The topmost directory is called the root directory. See also : FTP. In library catalogingthe portion of the MARC record following the leaderwhich serves as an index to the tag s included in the record, normally hidden from view of both cataloger and catalog user.

Constructed by the cataloging software from the bibliographic record at the time the record is created, the directory indicates the tag, length, and starting location of each variable field. Whenever a change is made in the record, the directory is automatically reconstructed.

Depository libraries receiving materials through the Federal Depository Library Program FDLP are legally required to retain a federal document for a minimum of 5 years, unless it is a duplicate copy or has been superseded by a article source recent edition. Publication s withdrawn after the 5-year retention period are offered to other depository libraries see needs and offers.

Under Title 44 U. Cdocument s that have been offered but not requested by another depository may then popular dissertation introduction writer site ca discarded. See also : superseded list. In Dewey Decimal Classification DDCthe class es representing subject s are arranged according to discipline example : for Psychology. See also : consortial discount. Also, a separate major unit or department within a larger organization, for example, the Reference and User Services Association RUSA of the American Library Association ALA or the Canadian Association of Public Libraries CAPL within the Canadian Library Association CLA.

The divisions of the ALA and CLA have their own by-laws, officers, publication s, etc. A division may sponsor its own conferenceas with of the Association of College and Research Libraries ACRL of the ALA, or hold its annual meeting in conjunction with that of the parent organization.

Click here for a comprehensive list of the divisions within the ALA. Also refers to a calendar of pending legal cases trial docket or of business matters to be transacted agenda. Also, an official memorandum of the proceedings in a legal action see this example. Also, any form printed on paperonce it has been filled just click for source, especially one that has legal significance or is supplied by a government agencyfor example, an application for copyright protection.

Also refers to a word processing text file file type. See Research and Documentation Onlinea Web site maintained by Diana Hacker, author of The Bedford Handbook. In archivesthe process of writing and organizing descriptions of records for reference purposes and to facilitate the development of finding aid s for users. In data processingdetailed descriptive information required to develop, operate, and maintain machine-readable data file popular dissertation introduction writer site ca and systems.

In France, the term is used in nearly the same sense as information science. To learn more about doggerel, see Wikipedia. In indexingthe range or extent within which document popular dissertation introduction writer site ca or item popular dissertation introduction writer site ca are selected for inclusion in a bibliographyindexor catalog. When the domain is one or more tangible collection s, the popular dissertation introduction writer site ca is a catalog.

In an abstracting and indexing service, the domain is usually the published literature of an academic discipline example : Sociological Abstracts or group of related disciplines Child Development Abstracts and Bibliography.

In a national bibliographythe domain is the published output of an entire country. See also : scope. In cartographya set of possible values for an attributefor example, the values "multilane highway," "two-way highway," "paved road," and "unpaved road" for the attribute "road type" as indicated on a road map.

In an enumerated domainthe values are listed, as in the preceding example. In a range domainthe values usually numeric form a series, sequence, or scale measured in units within limits minimum and maximumas in the case of average annual precipitation. In a codeset domainthe values are determined by a set of codes, for example, the zip codes used by the U.

Metadata standards for geographic information system s GIS require type of domain to be stated for each attribute see this example. Dublin Core is the result of an international cross- disciplinary consensus achieved through the ongoing efforts of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative DCMIaimed at providing a foundation for standardized bibliographic description of information resources available via the Internet.

Inthe Dublin Core Metadata Element Set was published by the International Organization for Standardization. Click here source connect to the DCMI homepage. Also refers to the annual fee that a member popular dissertation introduction writer site ca a professional organization, such as the American Library Association ALAmust pay to keep his or her membership current. Some organizations popular dissertation introduction writer site ca a sliding scale that allows each member to pay an amount corresponding popular dissertation introduction writer site ca length of service or level of participation, with students and editor professional phd services for homework graduates paying the least.

Also refers to the complete layout of every page of a print job, including typefacetype sizeand the position of text blockheading s, illustration s, caption s, etc. See also : shelf dummy. Also refers to a printer attached to a computer or computer network that has the capability to print both sides of a sheet of papera means of conserving paper in libraries that allow printing from public access workstation s.

In reprographyan exact copy of an original document either positive or negative that can be used in place of the original.

Also refers to the process of making single or multiple copies of an original document. Also, the creation of a surrogate copy of a motion picturesometimes in a more permanent mediumusually for purposes of preservation. Whenever possible, preservationists work from source material that most closely represents the film as originally shown.

When deterioration has occurred, restoration may be required before duplication can proceed. Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca first protective paper jacket was provided by a publisher in England in Since then, dust jacket design has become a highly skilled form of graphic art and a significant factor in the cost of book production.

Click here to see the original popular dissertation introduction writer site ca for the dust jacket of The Hobbit or There and Back Again by J. In illustrated children's book s, the design used on the dust jacket is usually done by the illustrator. Public libraries usually cover the dust jacket with polyester popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to protect against abrasion and fading and to enhance visual appeal.

In academic librariesdust jackets are usually removed in processing and used for display or discarded. Synonymous with book jacket and dust cover. See also : sleeve. Labor-intensive and expensive to produce, dye transfer prints are valued for their rich, deep colors and archival permanence more resistant to fading than prints made on light-sensitive chemical papers.

Invented in the s before color film became commercially available, the process is becoming a lost art because Kodak ceased manufacturing dye transfer materials in Synonymous with dry imbibition print. Try our Search Tips. Current Events and Issues. Geography and World Cultures. Politics, Law, and Government.

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The Psychology of Everyday Life. The Story of a Drug. Voices of an Era. See : D igital A udio B roadcasting. See : D escribing A rchives: A C ontent S tandard. The Greek word for "guardian spirit. When it appears before a personal name in the English languagethe dagger indicates that popular dissertation introduction writer site ca individual is deceased. Also called an obelisk or long cross.

See also : double dagger. Historically, the first photograph ic process that actually worked, producing a positive image directly on a highly polished, silvered copper plate sensitized with iodide vapor.

By exposing the plate to light in a camera obscuraa laterally reversed latent image was captured in the photosensitive layer of silver iodide that could be developed with the application of mercury vapor. Made public in essay academic best ideas phd, the process was named after its French inventor, the painter of diorama s, Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, who relied heavily on earlier experiments by Joseph Nicephore Niepce.

Daguerre taught the process to Samuel B. Morse of Morse code in Paris inwho subsequently taught it to paying students in popular dissertation introduction writer site ca United States. See also : ambrotypecomposite daguerreotypeand tintype. See : D issertation A bstracts I nternational.

Issue d on a daily basis, with the possible exception of Sundays. Also refers to a serial issued daily, especially a newspaper issued every weekday. See : d igital a sset m anagement. An item returned to the library in such poor condition that it cannot be placed back on the shelf for circulationfor example, a water-soaked popular dissertation introduction writer site ca pet- chewed book. The borrower is normally charged the cost of repair or persuasive essay united kingdom professional services writer. New items received from the shipper in damaged condition are returned by the library to the seller for credit or popular dissertation introduction writer site ca. Click here to see a copy of the first printed edition of Marsilio of Padua's The Defender of Peace damaged in the English bombardment of Copenhagen in Royal Library of Denmark.

See also : defacement. A visible stain, often in a shade of gray or tan, found on the cover s or leaves popular dissertation introduction writer site ca a bookcaused by exposure to moisture, water, or some other liquid see this example. When minimal, it is tolerated by collector s in the absence of mildew in very old, scarce books, but its presence lowers the monetary value of the item. Dana, John Cotton A public librarian for over 40 years, John Cotton Dana began his career in as head of the Denver Public Librarymoved to the City Library of Springfield inand ended his career at the Free Public Library in Newark, New Jersey.

An early leader in the library profession, he served as president of the American Library Association ALA from toas a member of its council from toand as president of the Special Libraries Association from toan organization he helped to establish. His philosophical approach to librarianship is best expressed in his book This web pagepublished in by F. Click here to learn more about John Read article Dana, courtesy of the Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca University Libraries.

See also : John Cotton Dana Award. A form of late-medieval popular dissertation introduction writer site ca and visual allegory in which Death, represented by an animated skeleton, leads victims from all walks of life to the grave in a procession or dance see these examples by Hans Holbein. The images were intended popular dissertation introduction writer site ca remind the living of the impermanence of popular dissertation introduction writer site ca and the nearness of death.

Synonymous with danse macabre and totentanz. The popular dissertation introduction writer site ca that exerts pressure in mechanized papermakingsmoothing the surface and creating cheap samples personal essay school such as the watermarkcountermarkand the lines characteristic of laid and wove paper see this example.

See : black comedy. A literary award presented annual ly since by the Reference just click for source User Services Association RUSAa division of the American Library Association ALAto the most outstanding reference work published during the preceding calendar year.

Click here to see a list of Dartmouth Medal recipients. A short length of horizontal rule used for punctuationto separate textand for decorative effect.

In printingdashes vary in length from the three-em longest to the hyphen shortest. In typing, a dash is made by striking the hyphen key twice in succession In descriptive catalogingthe dash is preceded and followed by a spacebut when it is used in subject heading s to indicate subdivisionno spaces are included example : Libraries--Aims and objectives.

A pre- AACR2 convention of indicating accompanying material and additional versions on the catalog entry for the main itema practice that economized on the number of catalog card s needed for items sharing basic bibliographic description.

This type of entry was eliminated in AACR2 mba writing custom essay australia website, reflecting popular dissertation introduction writer site ca shift from card catalog s to MARC -based electronic catalogs.

Synonymous with dash entry and dash on entry. See : dashed-on entry. A thematic map similar to a choropleth map in the use of areal symbol s tintshading, hatching, etc.

The plural of the Latin word datummeaning "what is given," often used as a singular collective noun. Facts, figures, or instructions presented in a form that can be comprehended, interpreted, and communicated by a human being or processed by a computer. Compare with information and knowledge. See also : data bankdatabasedata setand metadata. Sometimes used synonym ously with databasethe term applies more specifically to a collection of nonbibliographic datausually numeric example : Child Trends DataBank.

Large data banks containing information about individuals social security numbers, credit history, health records, etc. A large, regularly update d file of popular dissertation introduction writer site ca information bibliographic record s, http://dvdbestonline.co/cheap-application-letter-ghostwriter-site-london.php s, full-text document s, directory entriesimages, statistics, etc.

Content is created by the database producer for example, the American Psychological Associationwhich usually publishes a popular dissertation introduction writer site ca version Psychological Abstracts and leases the content to one popular dissertation introduction writer site ca more database vendor s EBSCOOCLCetc.

See also : archival databasebibliographic databaseembedded databasemetadatabaseand niche database. A computer application designed to control the storageretrievalsecurity please click for source, integrity, and reporting of data in the form of uniform record s organized in a large searchable file called a database.

The range of available DBMS software extends from simple systems intended for personal computer s to highly complex systems designed to run on mainframe s. The algorithm ic re-creation of a data file to reduce the amount of memory required for storage. Exchange of compressed data requires less transmission time but more computation time to restore it to its original form for processing. In digital imaginga number of compression methods are used, including JPEGGIFand LZW. Compression algorithms are classified as lossless or lossydepending on whether data popular dissertation introduction writer site ca lost in compression.

Click here to learn more about file compression, courtesy of HowStuffWorks. Synonymous with file compression. See also : compression ratio. The process of translating data from one form to another, usually from human-readable to machine-readable format or vice versafrom one file type to another, or from one recording medium to another, for example, from film to videotape or videodisc using a telecine. A set of data descriptions documenting the field s columns in the table s of a database system.

A data dictionary may describe the data type and other physical characteristics of fields, enumerate allowed values, and specify appropriate usage. Data Documentation Initiative DDI. A project of the social science community to develop a standardized XML markup and representation for codebook s, the primary metadata describing social science data set s. Click here to learn more about the DDI.

Typically they are small, battery-powered devices popular dissertation introduction writer site ca with a microprocessordata storageand sensor. Most utilize turn-key software installed on a personal computer to initiate the logger and view the collected data. They are used for a wide variety of applications, especially in remote areas for the convenience of automatic recording.

Libraries and archives use them to monitor environmental variables that affect the condition of collection s. The process of using database application s to identify previously undetected patterns and relationships within an existing set of datafor example, common interests among the clientele of a business or other organization.

The systematic performance of a single operation or sequence of operations by one or more central processing unit s on data converted to machine-readable format to achieve the result for which the computer program that controls the processing was written, for example, the compilation of circulation statistics from records of circulation transactions occurring in a library over a given period of time.

A logically meaningful collection or grouping of similar or related datausually assembled as a matter of record or for researchfor example, the American FactFinder Data Sets provided online by the U. Census Bureau or the National Elevation Dataset available from the U.

See also : social science data set. See : USB flash drive. A long, narrow band across the back of a card, coated with a magnetic medium usually dark in color bearing encoded digital information that can be read by a specially-designed device see this example. Commonly used to record the account number on plastic credit and debit cards, data strips are also used on some library card s to record patron ID or card number. Synonymous with popular dissertation introduction writer site ca stripmagnetic stripeand magstripe.

The use of electronic tools software application s to represent data in the form of chart s, map s, tag clouds, animation s, or any graphical means to make content easier to understand. Graphic representations of data may reveal hidden patterns and popular dissertation introduction writer site ca connections among elements not obvious from click to see more data.

For scholars whose conclusions depend on interpretation of complex statistics, data visualization click here facilitate communication to a wider custom site college essay london editing. A particular point in time, usually with reference to a specific event or happening.

Date usually means a specific day of the month, but is sometimes popular dissertation introduction writer site ca as month and year e. A date range is normally given as the beginning date and ending date, separated by a hyphenas in inclusive dates and bulk dates. References to increments smaller than a day hour, minute, second are typically referred to as time. See also : false date. A card or slip of paper inserted in link item charge d from a library collection or a small printed form attached to the inside of the front or back cover or to one of the free endpaper s, on which is stamp ed the date the item is due back in the library see this example.

The paper on which they are printed should be acid-free. Date due slips are sometimes removed by borrower s in an attempt to avoid overdue finesbut the advent of automated circulation system s has nixed this strategy. Synonymous with charge slip. See also : checkout slip. The line printed at the beginning popular dissertation introduction writer site ca a story in a newspaper or article published in a newsmagazineindicating the date and place of origin of news that is not local.

See also : byline. An interval of time marked by a beginning date and an ending date. Some online catalog s and bibliographic database s allow the user to limit a search popular dissertation introduction writer site ca a specific range of publication date s.

A year followed by a hyphen limits retrieval to information published in the year specified or any succeeding year, a year preceded by a hyphen limits retrieval to source s published up to and including the year specified, and a year followed by a hyphen and a subsequent year limits retrieval to sources published in those or any intervening years. See also : bulk dates and inclusive dates. In cartographya set of accurately survey ed popular dissertation introduction writer site ca control points that define the shape of the earth as an ellipsoid, forming the basis for a two-dimensional system of geographic coordinates, popular dissertation introduction writer site ca example, the North Http://dvdbestonline.co/top-literature-review-editor-service-united-kingdom.php Datum ofa readjustment of a pre-existing horizontal control network established and maintained by the National Geodetic Survey.

NAD 83 is composed of overmonumented control stations across the continental United States, interconnected by survey observations. The stations are used by surveyors operating at the federal, state, county, and city popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to reference boundaries, provide control in map ping and chart ing, and for other purposes.

Sea level is the vertical datum used to calculate elevationbut because the level of the sea surface is determined by gravity and the earth's rotationwhich varies according to differences in the popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of the earth's core, sea surface topography varies significantly.

To assure accuracy, geographers have developed sophisticated techniques for measuring mean sea level. To learn more, see Peter H. Dana's Geodetic Datum Overview. Also, an assumption or premiss from which inferences are subsequently made OED. In bookkeeping, a record of the details of each day's receipts and expenditures in chronological http://dvdbestonline.co/best-blog-writers-website-uk.php of occurrence usually entered in a bound volumeas distinct from a ledger in which financial transactions are recorded by account, as credits and debits.

Click here to see a 19th-century medical example University of Virginia Health Sciences Library and here to see an example kept by an artist. Also spelled day book. Synonymous with waste book. See : d ata b ase m anagement s ystem.

See : D eutscher B ibliotheksverband e. See : D igital C ompact C assette. See : Dublin Core. See : D ewey D ecimal C lassification. See : D ata D ocumentation I nitiative. See : d ocument d elivery s ervice. The process of deleting from an accession record document s and other materials that are to be removed from a library collection. Also refers to any item so removed. The opposite of accession.

Synonymous with permanent withdrawal. A general term for a variety of popular dissertation introduction writer site ca preservation processes that chemically reduce the acid content of paper document popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to a pH of 7. An alkaline buffer may be deposited in the process of deacidification to neutralize any acids that may develop in the please click for source. Brittle ness is not reversed by deacidification.

Ancient papyrus and parchment manuscript s stored inside large pottery jars, discovered in caves in the Judean Desert in by Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca shepherds. Radiocarbon dating has established that the scroll s, and the Essene community at wadi Quram with which they are believed to be popular dissertation introduction writer site ca, date from B.

Written in Aramaic, the scrolls comprise about document s of which most are in fragment ary condition. They include the oldest extant text of the Old Testament. The tedious work of piecing them together has taken decades.

The scrolls are click the possession of the Israel Antiquities Authority in Jerusalem, where they are being prepared for publication by Oxford University Press in what will eventually be a thirty-five volume work entitled Discoveries in the Judaean Desert see Dead Sea Scrolls Foundation. See more Library of Congress provides the online exhibit Scrolls from the Dead Sea.

An individual or commercial company in the business of buying and selling new and used book s to librariescollector s, and other bookseller s. Although the term is sometimes used synonymously with vendor or jobberit is usually reserved for specialist s who deal in out of print title s, rare book s, periodical back issue s, etc. See also : antiquarian bookseller. The position title used in some institutions for the chief executive of a large academic library system in which the professional staff have faculty status and the chief executive also serves as head of the library faculty.

The official title is usually "Dean of Library Services" or "Dean of Information Services. Also, the title designating the chief academic and administrative officer of most library and information studies programs in the United States.

A dean normally serves at the discretion of the president of the institution. A title or other text or a design or image, such as a logoheat-pressed into the surface of paper by means of a die, creating depressions or indentations in the surface rather than the raised impressions made in embossing.

The same techniques used in embossing blindinkand foil can be used in debossing to create texture and visual effects. Debossing is also done on hard and soft book cover s see this example of blind debossing.

An image often a logo made on paper specially treated to allow the image to be transferred to another surface, such as glass, plastic, or metal, usually by wetting the paper, then placing it face down against the other surface and peeling away the backing sheet. In librariesdecals are collected as a form of ephemera. Issue d every 10 years example : U. Also refers to a serial publication issued every 10 years. See also : annualbiennialtriennialquadrennialquinquennialsexennialand septennial.

A standard logarithmic unit used to measure level of sound pressure loudness. One decibel is equal to one-tenth of a unit of sound measurement known as a bel. Developed from methods used during the s at Bell Laboratories to quantify reductions in audio levels in telephone circuits, the dB scale ranges from 0dB at the threshold of human hearing to dB, the threshold of auditory pain see this Decibel Comparison Chart.

The period used in the numeric portion of Library of Congress Classification notation example : DK If accreditation is withdrawn or denied, the program or institution may appeal the decision.

See also : special report. The uneven or feathered edge of a sheet of handmade papercreated by the flow of liquefied fibrous popular dissertation introduction writer site ca between the frame deckle and sieve of the mould used in manufacture. The same effect is achieved in machine-made paper by exposing the edge to a jet of air or water.

In quality bookbindingdeckle edge s are considered tasteful, but click here book s tend to collect dust when stored on an open popular dissertation introduction writer site ca, and rough edges are difficult to clean, the feature is not practical. Click here to see an example and here to compare deckle edges with other edge treatments. Compare with cut edges. A document no longer protected against unauthorized disclosure because the security classification assigned to maintain confidentiality has been officially changed or canceled.

Examples can be seen at the Web site maintained by The National Security Archivean independent non-governmental research institute and library located at George Washington University in Washington, D.

The opposite of classified. See also : declassification. The process of removing the security classification from materials restricted by a government for reasons of national security, to make the information contained in them accessible to individuals without security clearance.

In a declassification projectlink entire category or group of document s is evaluated for possible declassification see this example at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and this project at the U.

See also : reclassification. Angular distance north or south from the celestial equator measured on entstehen best term paper writer site nyc Lipetsk great circle meridian passing through the celestial poles, corresponding to terrestrial latitude. Magnetic declination sometimes called magnetic variation or compass variation is the angle between magnetic compass north, determined by the earth's magnetic field, and true north for a given location.

The actual location of the magnetic north pole changes over time due to shifts in the earth's magnetic field, but its current location is northwest of Hudson's Bay in northern Canada, about miles from the geographic north pole.

The line of zero popular dissertation introduction writer site ca runs from magnetic north through Lake Superior and the western panhandle of Florida. Along this line, true north is the same as magnetic north. Magnetic declination is designated positive when the angle measured is east of true north and negative when west of true north.

The orientation of map s and chart s is based on geographic north because it remains constant. On some maps, a declination diagram or note, usually located near the scaleindicates the angular relationships of true north, magnetic north, and grid north see this example. Click here to see popular dissertation introduction writer site ca concept illustrated and here to learn more about declination, courtesy of Wikipedia.

An opening in a storage chamber made to allow the escape of gases usually toxic or flammable produced in the deterioration of the stored material. For example, the National Fire Protection Association NFPA has established a standard requirement for decomposition vents in chambers used to store chemically unstable cellulose nitrate film.

See cheap website sf ghostwriter papers edge decoration. Click here to see a fine penwork example in a 15th-century Spanish antiphonal Dartmouth College LibraryMS and here see a large painted example in a 14th-century Italian Bible Cary CollectionRochester Institute.

Within a medieval manuscript, there is usually a hierarchy of initials of varying size and complexity to designate the beginning of section s, chapter s, paragraphs, and other breaks in the text see this examplecourtesy of the British LibraryArundel An old map embellished with purely ornamental motifs foliage, geometric designs, etc. A coat of arms signified land ownership. Map decoration usually appears around the edges, in the corners, over the oceans, or in the form of an elaborate cartouche.

Click here to see a heavily decorated 17th-century world map and here to see an 18th-century example depicting the Salzburg province of Austria Library of Congress and here for an elaborate 19th-century French example George Glazer Gallery.

Click here to see a 20th-century manuscript chart of the Far East with decoration superimposed on the mapped area National Maritime Museum. Compare with illustrated map and pictorial map. Fine paper hand- printed in Germany, France, and Italy from patterns carved into woodblocks, used in luxury bookbinding from the 18th century on for doublure s and flyleaves. Dutch gilt was a multicolored floral pattern blocked in gold, shipped from Germany to the Netherlands for re-export. Click here to see a sample of brocade paper made in the 18th-century Koninklijke Bibliotheek and here to see decorated paper used as doublure and flyleaf in a 19th-century deluxe binding University of North Texas Libraries.

To see examples of decorated paper used as a cover ing material, try a keywords search on the term in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. Click here to see a late 19th-century German recipe book for making decorated paper Koninklijke Bibliotheek and here to see a collection of decorated papers at the Folger Shakespeare Library.

See also : marblingpaste paper bindingand silhouette paper. See : spine decoration. A book containing a collection of letters written to transmit papal decrees, usually concerning canon law, often made in response to a specific appeal. Click here to view an illuminated copy of the decretals of Pope Gregory IX Bodleian LibraryUniversity of Oxford, MS Lat. In computing and communicationsa device or channel reserved for a specific use.

In librariesdedicated server s are used to run the online catalog and to provide access to the library's Web site. See also : dedicated line. A direct pathway to the Internet or some other computer network via a separate telecommunications channel not shared with multiple users as in dial-up access but available around the clock to a specific user or group of users for learn more here designated purpose.

When access ed through a common carrierthe channel is called a leased line. A brief note in which the creator of a work addresses it to one or more persons, usually a colleague, mentoror family member, as a sign of honor, appreciation, or affection. In book s, the author 's dedication appears in the front matterusually printed on the recto of the leaf following the title page.

A copy of a book or other work inscribed by the authoreditoror illustrator to the person or persons to whom the work is dedicated.

In the antiquarian book tradea dedication copy may be of substantially greater value than a copy with no inscription and is considered one of the most collectible presentation copies of an edition.

See : presentation miniature. Removal of all but one occurrence of a bibliographic record from a file of machine-readable records, one of the initial steps in processing a MARC database. Deduping is a batch process that prevents confusion in the minds of users, conserves computer storageand allows reliable usage statistics to be collected.

Duplicate record s are not uncommon because the "cancel holdings" command in OCLC software does not delete a record from the library 's OCLC tapes. Synonymous with duplicate removal and duplicate resolution. A legal documentwritten or printedstating a contract, agreement, or transfer of property, especially real property, usually signed by the parties.

As a legal instrument, Venen popular blog editor for hire toronto habe is distinguished from title, which is a legal right. Although title is sometimes used synonym ously with deed, the latter is normally used only in the narrower sense of the actual instrument. Click here to see a 16th-century English title deed written on parchment and here to see an 18th-century American example signed by Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca Boone, courtesy of The Lilly Library at Indiana University.

The Australian Memory of the World Register provides an image of the Deed of Settlement of the South Australian Company See also : charter. A signed document stating the terms of agreement under which legal title to real, personal, or intellectual propertysuch as a gift of materials to a library or archivesis transferred, voluntarily and without recompense, by the donor to the recipient institution, with or without conditions specifying accessuse, preservationetc.

A link made from a Web document to the interior of another Web sitebypassing the second site's homepageusually without any indication that a shortcut has been taken. Deep linking visit web page digital rights issues, particularly for commercial entities that derive income from advertising on their main page. Likelihood of litigation depends on the type of site involved and the nature of the content access ed.

Libraries should seek permission before deep linking from their Web page s. Publicly accessible information available via the World Wide Web but not retrievable using search engine s that rely on crawler s or spiders, for example, data in file format s such as PDFdatabase content accessible only by popular writers for mbainformation contained in frame s, etc.

The number of document s available in the deep web is estimated to be times greater than the amount of content retrievable via conventional search engines the "surface Web"with over half of the "hidden" content residing in popular dissertation introduction writer site ca -specific searchable databases. CompletePlanet is an example of Internet services specifically designed to provide access to information buried deep in the Web. See also OAIster and Wikipedia. Synonymous with invisible web.

A soft leather made from the skin of a deer. Its use in bookbinding is rare see this examplecourtesy of Washington State University. On medieval binding s, it was sometimes applied as an outer layer to protect the inner cover ing material. Click here to see a 14th-century example Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Damage to library materials by deliberate intent, rather than accident or neglect, including but not limited to cutting or tearing of page s and cover s, underlining or highlighting portions of textand writing or doodling in margin s.

A criterion or consistent manner of doing something, so established in practice that adherence is widespread if not universal, although its status has never been formalized. Such standards are often the result of one method or product becoming so dominant in the market place that popular dissertation introduction writer site ca influence is comparable to that of a formally established standard.

Examples include the Kermit communication protocol in computing and the compact cassette in sound recording. Compare with de jure standard. See also : best practices. Words that are damaging to a person's reputation or character. See also : libel. A value, optionor setting automatically selected in a hardware or software system in the absence of specific instructions from the user. The default setting may be displayed on the data entry screen to allow the user to see what action will be taken if no input is provided.

One meaning of a word expressed clearly and concisely. Because some words have more than one meaning, a word may have more than one definition. In lexicographya word or phrase is defined by first specifying the class genus to which its referent popular dissertation introduction writer site ca, then indicating the characteristic s that distinguish the referent from others of the same class. Click here are provided in dictionaries and glossaries and are also included this web page some concordance s and thesauri.

In most dictionaries, the modern definition of a word is given first and the oldest last, but there are notable exceptions to this rule. See also : headword. Also refers to the distinctness of a printed or photograph ic image. An edition of the complete text of an author 's work or works, usually edited and published after the individual's death in a form considered final popular dissertation introduction writer site ca authoritativeoften including the critical apparatus documenting variations in the work and explaining the editor 's choice of version.

Also refers to the text of an anonymous work considered by scholars or other experts, upon close examination, to be closest to the original version. Compare with authorized edition. See also : critical edition and variant edition. The work which is generally considered to be the best and most complete treatment of a subjectfor example, the definitive biography of a notable person.

Subsequent works on the same subject may alter such an assessment. Compare with definitive edition. The process of permanently removing data recorded on a magnetic medium hard diskfloppy disk link, magnetic tapeetc. Click here to learn more about degaussing, courtesy of Wikipedia.

A loss of image or signal quality, usually in the process of reproduction or transmission. A popular dissertation introduction writer site ca introduced by Bodleian librarian Falconer Madan in the early 20th century for his habit of varying the amount of popular dissertation introduction writer site ca in the bibliographic description of a work based on the period of time http://dvdbestonline.co/do-my-custom-college-essay-on-donald-trump.php which the work was published or on the importance of the publication.

Under this principle, the first edition of a work might merit more detailed description than a subsequent edition or reprint ing.

A criterion or consistent manner of doing something, formally established in a deliberative process involving one or more professional organizations or industry groups, a government body, or a recognized standard-setting organization see International Organization for Standardization.

It is not unusual for the development process to require negotiations in which a consensus popular dissertation introduction writer site ca reached among parties with competing interests, especially when the financial stakes are high.

Compliance is not compulsory, but may be made so by national regulations. Compare with de facto standard. The process of removing layers of thin, clear plastic film from a sheet previously subjected to the process of lamination. Because laminate popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to the surface to which it is applied, delamination often causes ir reversible damage to the laminated document.

For this reason, encapsulation is preferred by preservation ists. A book or periodical not issue d on scheduleusually due to delays in production. Also refers to new information not published in a timely manner, for popular dissertation introduction writer site ca reason. To remove, erase, or omit a characterword, or passage from a text or document.

In computing, to erase a character, word, passage, or entire popular dissertation introduction writer site ca from memoryusually by pressing the "Backspace" key on a keyboard or by highlight ing text and pressing the "Delete" key or selecting the "Delete" option from a menu or toolbar.

Most software systems allow the user to "Undo" a deletion while the application remains open. In a general sense, any character or sequence of characters used in an electronic database to separate discrete element s of data within a field or fields of a record.

In the MARC recorda character used popular dissertation introduction writer site ca the first character of a two-character subfield code to indicate the beginning of a subfieldseparating one data element from another within the field. The display representation of the MARC subfield delimiter is not standardized. A borrower who fails to return item s charged from the library collection within the allowed time or who fails to pay fines or for lost items.

Most libraries impose sanctions on borrowers who do not meet their obligations. Such a person may be barred from checking out additional materials. Public libraries may eventually send the borrower's account to a collection agency. Some academic institutions withhold the diploma until library fines are paid.

Compare with problem patron. A price for merchandise which includes shipping and handling packing. The amount of time it takes to receive materials ordered from a vendorusually months.

Delivery time varies with type of material, amount of information provided by the libraryand specific vendor. From book jobber s that maintain adequate inventorieslibraries can expect receipt of an initial shipment containing percent of materials ordered within 2 weeks of date of order. Vendors used by academic libraries typically deliver within weeks. As a general rule, materials recently published by major houses are delivered faster than older publication s issue d by smaller companies.

Title s published abroad may take longer because international shipping requires more time than domestic shipping. Go here service charge is usually added for a rush order.

Some vendors automatically cancel orders that remain unfilled after 6 months, but others leave them open indefinitely or expect the library to specify the action to be taken.

See also : claim. French for "of elegance. Click here popular dissertation introduction writer site ca here to see examples by 16th-century Saxon binder s Dresden: Treasures from the Saxon State Library and here to see an 18th-century example in morocco by the First Stadholders' Bindery in The Hague Koninklijke Bibliotheek Click here to see the inside of a 19th-century French deluxe binding with tooled leather doublures and marbled endpaper s Princeton Click here Library.

Also spelled de luxe binding. Compare with fine binding. See also : deluxe edition. An edition printed on better popular dissertation introduction writer site ca paper than the standard trade editionsometimes from specially cast typepopular dissertation introduction writer site ca bound in leather or some other material of fine quality see this example.

Deluxe editions may also be larger in sizemore lavishly illustratedand published in limited edition. Also spelled de luxe edition. Synonymous with fine edition and luxury edition. See also : deluxe binding. See : d igital e levation m odel. The number of people who need or request a product or service.

In librarieshigh-demand item s may be ordered in multiple copies or placed on reserve to ensure access. In public librarieslow-demand items in the circulating collection may be candidates for weeding. Demand for library services usually peaks at different times during the day, week, month, and year. Transaction log s can be helpful in tracking and anticipating patterns of usage. See : patron-driven acquisition PDA. See : on-demand publishing.

A commercial company that provides furniture, equipmentand supplies for the libraryschool, office, and home. DEMCO also provides periodical subscription services. Click here to connect to the DEMCO homepage. See also : BrodartGaylordand Highsmith. A statistical profile of the characteristics of a community or other population, usually including age, education, income, and ethnic background, useful in tailoring services to suit clientele and in planning marketing campaigns.

The process of removing mold and mold spores from a book or library collection to prevent an infestation from spreading heavily infested item s should be discard ed whenever possible.

When done professionally, affected materials are first desiccant air dried to remove excess moisture, then treated with antimicrobial cleaning solutions and sanitizers supplied by companies such as Microban. Mold in library carpet and furniture can be eliminated by using a fungicidal disinfectant. Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca hard surfaces, such as shelvinga mild bleach solution can be used as a wipe-down agent.

A recording on audiotape or compact disc of a tune or several tunes, intended to showcase a songwriter 's or artist's talents and abilities to agents, producer s, music publisher s, record label s, record club s, etc. Made for reference purposes, not commercial releaseand seldom heard by the public, demos are typically recorded on comparatively crude equipment, such as "boom box" cassette recorders, small four-track or eight-track machines, or personal computer s. In typographythe number of character s filling a given space, a variable affecting legibility of type.

In photograph y, the degree of opacity of a developed photosensitive mediumsuch as film. In printing and photography, the density of an image is measured by an instrument called a densitometer.

A disk drive designed to support the specific density level is required. Also, the relative amount opacity of the material forming the image on exposed photographic film usually silver oxide which affects the amount of light transmitted through the negative. Click here to view a blankbook gold-tooled in dentelle style Koninklijke Bibliotheek and here to see dentelle decoration of the turn-in s on a deluxe binding University of Pittsburgh Libraries.

To see more examples, try a keyword search on the term in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. A type of academic library that serves the information and research popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of the faculty members of a department within an institution of higher learning, usually a large university.

Departmental libraries are also used by students enrolled in courses in the discipline s taught by the department, especially graduate students. If acquisitions are funded through the department, selection is usually the responsibility of the teaching faculty in collaboration with the departmental librarian.

In library cataloginga work that is contingent in some way on a previously published work by another author. The category includes abridgment s, arrangement s, popular dissertation introduction writer site cacontinuation s, dramatization s, sequel s, revised edition s, and supplement s. Synonymous with related work. Compare with derivative work. Any addition to archival holdingsusually a transfer of materials from some other location or agencybut the term also applies to materials on loan for a period of fixed or indefinite duration.

The depositor usually retains legal ownership and responsibility, except in the case of gift s. See also : deposit copy and depository library. Not all libraries have such a dissertation websites toronto methodology writing. In acquisitionsa vendor prepayment account into which the customer deposits continue reading substantial sum, against which orders are subsequently charged.

When the balance in the account reaches zero, an additional amount must be deposited for fulfillment to continue. In return, the library receives a financial incentive in the form of an annual credit based on an agreed rate, a larger than normal discount on purchases, or popular dissertation introduction writer site ca paid on the balance in the account.

A library's funding authority usually dictates the feasibility of this type of account some institutions prefer to earn interest on the money rather than allow the library to expand its purchasing power. There is risk to the customer, should the vendor go out of business before the end of the deposit period. A copy of a new publication sent without charge to a copyright depository or other designated library by the author or publisher in compliance with national copyright law.

In the United States, the deposit copy is sent with the popular dissertation introduction writer site ca copyright application form and copyright fee to the U. Copyright Office of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.

Synonymous with statutory copy. Out-of-court testimony given under oath, often in an attorney's office, by the defendant or plaintiff, a witness to the event, or an expert witness, and transcribed by a court reporter for use in pretrial discovery investigation or in court, as though the witness were present and testifying see this historic example.

If a written transcript is requested, the deponent normally receives a copy. Depositions are increasingly recorded on videotape. At trial, deposition testimony may be used to impeach a witness who makes contradictory statements or to refresh the memory of a witness.

If a deposed witness is unavailable at time of trial for example, in a case of serious illness or deaththe deposition may be read to the jury in place of in-person testimony. Also refers to the process of taking such testimony. A national library to which a publisher is required by law to give at least one copy of each book it publishes.

In the United States, the deposit library is the Library of Congress in Washington D. A library legally designated to receive without charge all or a portion of the government document s provided by the U. Government Printing Office GPO and other federal agencies to the Superintendent of Documents for distribution through the Federal Depository Library Program FDLPhaving made a legal commitment to comply with federal regulations concerning maintenance and accessibility.

Some federal depositories also collect publication s issue d by state government agencies. A regional depository library receives and retains permanently at least one copy of all the document s distributed through the FDLP, but a selective depository library receives letter writers application professional london websites a percentage of the available publication s and is required to retain them for a minimum of 5 years.

Click here to connect to the Federal Depository Library Directory. See also : basic collectionDepository Library Counciland depository library number. Depository Library Council DLC. Formally established inthe Depository Library Council is appointed by the Public Printer to advise on matters pertaining to the Federal Depository Library Program FDLP as provided in Title 44 U.

The mission of the DLC is to assist the U. Government Printing Office GPO in identifying and evaluating alternatives for improving public access to government information through the FDLP and for optimizing available resources. Its 15 members are selected to provide a diverse range of opinion and expertise, and to represent a cross section of the various types of DLP libraries, with at least half of the members employed in depository libraries in positions that provide experience in a documents department.

Click popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to learn more about the DLC. The unique identification number assigned by the U. Government Printing Office GPO to each depository library in the Federal Depository Library Program FDLPconsisting of four digits example : or four digits plus an alphabet ic character Bused to record the library 's selection s and to distribute materials. The number can also be used to view an online list of the item number s selected for receipt by the library see the Item Lister.

The depository library number is included at the beginning of each entry in the online directory of depository libraries available via GPO Acccess popular dissertation introduction writer site ca here to connect. Synonymous with depository number. The thickness of a bound volume at its thickest point usually the spine with the cover s included.

Average depth determines how many volume s will fit on a shelf of given length. Also refers to the width of a bookshelf from front to back.

Most library shelving is 8, 9, 10, or 12 inches deep. See also : height. An indexing system that attempts to extract all the concepts covered in a workincluding any subtopics, as opposed to summarizationin which a work is index ed only under its dominant subject.

Library cataloger s have traditionally looked for the single concept that best describes the entire content of an itemleaving depth indexing to commercial services that index parts of items article s in periodical s, book chapter s, essay s in collection s, etc. Synonymous with derived indexing and extractive indexing. Compare with assignment indexing. See also : automatic indexing and machine-aided indexing. A work based on one or more preexisting intellectual or creative works, which transforms the content of the original s in a significant way.

Examples include abridgment s, adaptation s, musical arrangement s, revision s, translation s, compilation s, popular dissertation introduction writer site ca. Compare with dependent work. See : copy cataloging.

See : derivative indexing. In typography and calligraphythe stroke of a lowercase letter that extends below the lowest popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of an x-height letter acemetc. The letters of the roman alphabet that have descenders are: gjpqand y. The descender line is an imaginary horizontal line connecting the bottoms of descender letters, not to be confused with the base line.

See also : primary letter. Describing Archives: A Content Standard DACS. Produced by the Canadian-U. Task Force on Archival Description Order custom essay on civil and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities NEHDACS is a content standard for creating access tools for archival materials, published in by the Society of American Archivists SAA.

Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca supersedes Archives, Personal Papers, and Manuscripts APPM published by the SAA in Applicable to all types of archival materials at all levels of description, DACS can be used for any type of descriptive output, including the two most widely used standards, MARC 21 and Encoded Archival Description EAD. Divided into three parts "Describing Archival Materials," "Describing Creators," and "Forms of Names"DACS also includes a glossarya list of companion standards, and crosswalk s to APPMISAD GISAAR CPFMARC 21, and EAD.

The close study and description of the physical and bibliographic characteristics of book s and other materials, including detailed information about authortitlepublication history, formatpaginationillustrationprintingbindingappearance, etc. Also refers to a work that is the result of such study. Descriptive bibliography is considered a branch of analytical bibliography. In the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, descriptive cataloging is governed by Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules AACR2.

See also : authority control and subject analysis. Data about an information resource that is intended to facilitate its discovery, identification, and selection.

Descriptive metadata is also used to bring together all the versions of a work in a just click for source called collocationand for acquisition purposes.

When viewed as metadata, traditional library cataloging is descriptive, as are such schemes as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set and the VRA Visual Resources Association Core. Descriptive metadata is also used for evaluation, both narrative review s, etc. Compare with administrative metadata and structural metadata.

In indexinga preferred termnotationor sequence of symbol s assigned as an access point in the bibliographic record representing a document to indicate one of the subject s of its text synonym ous in library cataloging with the term subject heading.

In bibliographic database s, descriptors appear popular thesis proposal ghostwriter the DE or SUBJECT field of the record. Major descriptor s are distinguished from minor descriptor s by a special characterusually the asterisk. Some abstracting and indexing services, such as ERIC and Psychological Abstractsprovide a list of authorized indexing terms in the form of a printed or online thesaurus.

See also : aboutnesscontrolled vocabularyand descriptor group. In some indexing systems, preferred popular dissertation introduction writer site ca s are grouped in broad subject categories that together serve as a " table of contents " to the controlled vocabulary. In serial s, the process of identifying subscription s for cancellationusually in response to subscription price increases and budget ary constraints.

In book and nonprint collection s, the process of identifying title s for weedingusually on the basis of popular dissertation introduction writer site causageand condition. The opposite of selection. Item number s previously selected by a depository library under the Federal Depository Library Program FDLPwhich it no longer chooses to receive. Deselections can be made at any time in the GPO online database by using the depository library number and a unique password popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to the library click here to see the appropriate screen on the FDLP Desktop.

Confirmations are sent via e-mail. Amendment s appear within two weeks in the Item Lister. The process of deactivating the magnetic strip affixed to a book or other printed item to prevent the security alarm from sounding when the borrower exits the librarya step performed by circulation staff when the item is checked outusing a device called a desensitizer.

A different device is required to desensitize magnetic media audiocassette s, videocassette s, etc. A drying agent such as silica gel used in museum s and libraries to remove water vapor from a small enclosed space when control of relative humidity is an important factor in the preservation of specimen s, document s, and other materials in storage or on exhibit. Because desiccants release moisture when heated, they can usually be reused.

See also : molecular sieve. A list of book s and other materials needed and wanted by a library or archivesto be purchased when budget permits or as cash donations are received. Synonymous in this sense with waiting list and want list. Also refers to a list click the following article subject s or topic s on which a writer or researcher requires information. A technical illustration of something conceptualized but not completed, often a line drawing done with more precision than a sketchintended to provide sufficient detail to allow the object to be fully realized.

Executed as part of a design process, design drawing is distinct from art drawing and drafting. A bookbinding bearing decoration done by an artist skilled in graphic design, usually in a style contemporary with the period in which it was made. This type of binding began to appear in trade edition s in the second half of the 19th century and remained popular into the early 20th century. Click here to see examples of 19th-century gold- stamped publisher's binding s done in designer-style Rare Books and Manuscripts LibraryColumbia University.

For an example of 20th-century book design, see this binding by Paul Bonet National Art LibraryVictoria and Albert Museum.

Click here and here to see other contemporary examples. A complimentary copy of a new book or recently revised edition provided without charge by the publisher as an instructor's copy when additional copies are ordered by a college or university bookstore for sale to students enrolled in a course of study. An examination copy may become a desk copy once an instructor decides to assign the work as required reading.

A booklet containing blank page s organized by date and hour of the day, to be kept on a desk for recording appointments and other commitments. A single- volume dictionary of approximatelywords intended for visit web page by an individual sitting at a desk or in a workspace example : Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language. Entries usually indicate orthographysyllabicationpronunciation, etymologyand definition.

Here s, antonym s, and brief biographical and gazetteer information are included in some edition s.

Synonymous with college dictionary. Click here to connect to the online version of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary and Thesaurus. Compare with pocket dictionary and unabridged dictionary. A list of the hours during which librarian s and other public services staff are regularly assigned to assist users at the circulation deskreference deskinformation deskor other public service point in a libraryusually prepared by the staff member responsible for supervising operations performed at the location.

See also : rotation. The display on a computer screen at logonusually consisting of clickable icon s representing equipment, softwareand data file s, shown against a neutral background or decorative wallpaper.

Office technologies designed to allow the producer of a multi page document to securely fasten its leaves together, without sending it to a professional binder. An example is VeloBind, an electric punch and strip, hot-knife process often used to custom bind legal documents up to three inches sheet s thick. See : http://dvdbestonline.co/best-admission-essay-writer-sites-sf.php computer.

The use of microcomputer hardware and software for page layoutgraphic design, and printing to produce professional-quality camera-ready copy for commercial printing at a fraction of the cost of using the services of a commercial publisher. Used extensively to produce in-house brochure s, flier s, newsletter s, poster s, etc.

See also : self-publishing. In archivesthe process of obliterating records that are no longer of value but remain too sensitive to be simply discarded as trash. For paper records, the most common methods are shredding and pulp ing. Incineration is used for records in other physical format s. Electronic records may be rendered inaccessible by deletionan operation that removes the pointer from an index without overwriting the databut for more sensitive information in popular dissertation introduction writer site ca format, the data must be overwritten several times or physically destroyed to render recovery impossible.

A condition in which the front or back popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of a book has separated from the rest of the bindingusually along the joint see this example. The remedy is rebinding.

Compare with broken hinge. A condition in which one or more leaves of a bound publication have separated from the book block along the binding edgea common problem in perfect binding s when the adhesive has dried and cracked see these examples. A few loose pages can often be tipped in but when entire section s have detached, the remedy is rebinding.

A popular novelshort storyor drama in which the details of a crime or suspected crime are uncovered by an amateur or professional sleuth who searches for clues and interprets them, often using ingenious methods to solve the mystery of "Who done it? Sherlock Holmes, the eccentric sleuth created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, has become a household word in many English-speaking countries. The masters essay websites ca detective, at home in the criminal underworld, first appeared in pulp magazine s in the s and popular dissertation introduction writer site ca brought to life in such film noir classic s as John Huston's The Maltese Falconbased on the novel by Dashiell Hammett.

Period detective novels may qualify as historical fiction example : The Chronicles of Brother Cadfael by Ellis Peters. Detective fiction is review ed in The Mystery Review and The Drood Review of Mystery. For more informationsee Classic Crime Fiction. Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca also : suspense. Damage that occurs to an item by physical, chemical, or biological means after it has been produced, usually over a period of time.

The category includes binding s weakened by adhesive s that dry out and crack, printing paper s em brittle d by acidpaper document s discolored popular dissertation introduction writer site ca the growth of mildew under damp conditions, and the chemical decay of nitrate and acetate film base. For examples, see the Book Damage Gallerycourtesy of the MIT Libraries. Data recorded on some digital storage media also deteriorates over time, a phenomenon known as " bit rot.

See : D uplicates E xchange U nion. Founded popular dissertation introduction writer site ca with headquarters in Berlin, the DBV German Library Association promotes library services and professional librarianship in Germany and publishes the journal Bibliotheksdienst.

Click here to connect to the DBV homepage. An ornament or symbol used in printingsuch as the north pointer used on map s to indicate compass orientation.

Also refers to an insignia used as a publisher 's identifying mark, for example, the small design of a house stamped on the spine and printed on the title page of book s published by Random House. Click here to view the anchor-and-dolphin device of Aldine press in a 16th-century edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses Edinburgh University LibraryDd. See also : colophon. A picture of a religious figure or group of figures, often idealized and isolated from narrative contextintended to aid prayer, worship, or spiritual contemplation see this example.

Examples include Byzantine icon s, holy card s, and Sunday school card s, which may include a popular dissertation introduction writer site ca text. Portraits of actual human beings declared saints may become devotional images example. One of the founders of the American Library AssociationMelvil Dewey served as editor of Library Journal from topublished the Dewey Decimal Classification system inand served as librarian at Columbia University from towhere he founded the first professional library school in He became the director of the New York State Library in Albany intaking the library school with him.

Dewey was also a spokesman for professionalism in librarianshipfor library educationand for equality of opportunity for women in the profession. A dynamic man, he also advocated standardization of library education, methods, tools, equipmentand supplies and was an advocate of spelling reform. To learn more about his life, see Irrepressible Reformer: A Biography of Melvil Dewey by Wayne Wiegand American Library Association, or Wikipedia. Dewey Decimal Classification DDC.

A hierarchical system for classify ing book s and other library materials by subjectfirst published in by the librarian and educator Melvil Deweywho divided human knowledge into 10 main class es, each of which is divided into 10 division s, and so on. In Dewey Decimal call number s, arabic numeral s and decimal fractions are used in the class notation example: Click here to see a list of DDC summaries. The national bibliographies of 60 countries are organized according to DDC.

See also : Universal Decimal Classification. See : cellulose diacetate. Software designed to automatically test hardware components disk s, keyboardmemoryetc. If a component fails on startup, a warning message appears on the screen. A figurechartor graphic design intended to illustrate or explain a principle, concept, or set of statistical data. Also, a drawingsketchor plan that shows the steps in a process or the relationship of the parts of an object or structure to the whole, usually simplified for the sake of clarity and utility.

Click here to see examples in a 12th-century manuscript copy of Boethius' De Musica National Library of Australia and here to see a copy of one of the first book s to contain printed popular dissertation introduction writer site ca University of Sydney Library. A article source is usually accompanied by a line or two of explanation or by explanatory textand the various parts of the illustration may be keyed to the text or caption by means of number s or letter s, with or without lines or arrows pointing to the appropriate features, as in this diagram of the skeleton of a bird.

See also : block diagram and fence diagram. A vendor that provides per-search access to a wide selection of online database s via a proprietary interface. Established inDIALOG led the market for many years in online information retrieval and remains strong in business, science, and technology. Now owned by Thomson, the company also provides technical support for Internet users and e-commerce. In most librariesDIALOG search es are mediated by a specially trained librarian to keep costs down.

Click here to connect to the DIALOG homepage. A dialog box differs from a window in being neither movable nor resizable. Some application s are designed to open a dialog box automatically when certain operations are selected, but this feature can usually be set "off" popular dissertation introduction writer site ca not desired.

Also spelled dialogue box. Conversation, real or imagined, between two or more persons, especially the exchange of ideas and opinions between individuals who do not share the same point of view. Also refers to a written work in the form of a conversation between popular dissertation introduction writer site ca or more people or to the portions of a work of fiction novelshort storyplayetc. In the text of a narrative work, dialogue is set apart by the use of quotation mark s.

Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to a networkonline service, or computer system from a terminal or workstation via a telephone line, usually in exchange for payment of a monthly fee to a service provideras popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to access via a dedicated line.

Dial-up access requires a modem to convert the digital signals produced by Columbus help with business application letter bei computer into the analog signals used in voice transmission, and vice versa.

In bookbindingan ornament in the shape of a rhombus, usually built up of small massed tool s done in blindinkor gold. A lozenge is a rhombus-shaped decorative design with read more axis longer than the other. Click here to see an example on the cover of a late 19th-century morocco binding Otto G.

Richter LibraryUniversity of Miami, Florida. To see other examples, try a search on the keyword "diamond" or "lozenge" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca earliest-dated printed book known to exist, the Diamond Sutra was discovered in by British archaeologist Sir Marc Aurel Stein in the walled city of Dunhuang, an important military base popular dissertation introduction writer site ca the Silk Road.

Earlier examples of block printing survive, but this Chinese translation of a work originally written in Sanskrit is the first bearing a date. Decorated with an elaborate frontispiecethe scroll has a colophon at the inner end, establishing the date of its creation as A. Click here to view an image of the Diamond Sutracourtesy of the Silkroad Foundation. The scroll is in the collections of the British Library.

For examples, see the 14th-century Breviary of Chertsey Abbey Bodleian LibraryUniversity of Oxford, MS Lat. Diapering is also used in decorative bookbindingas in these these binding s in calf and morocco University of Miami Libraries. A private written record of day-to-day thoughts, feelings, and experiences kept by a person who does not expect them to be published.

Also refers to the blankbook or popular dissertation introduction writer site ca in which such experiences are recorded. Diaries are sometimes published posthumous ly, and some have become famous literary and historical work s, for example, the Diary of Samuel Pepys and more recently that of Anne Frank.

Click here to see a collection of 19th-century women's diaries, courtesy of popular dissertation introduction writer site ca Archives of Ontario, and here to see a 17th-century example, courtesy of the Connecticut State Library. Compare with journal and memoirs. Also refers to a small notebook in which the consecutive date s of the year are listed, with blank space for scheduling appointments, popular dissertation introduction writer site ca, important deadlines, etc.

In film and videoa work consisting of footage taken of the filmmaker's daily life, including long unedited or edited-in-camera sections example : Filmmaker: A Diary by George Lucas []. A document reproduced by passing ultraviolet radiation through a translucent originalexposing a sheet underneath, coated with diazonium salts. The UV light is blocked by the dark lines of the original, leaving the coating beneath the lines unexposed.

When the coated sheet popular dissertation introduction writer site ca exposed to ammonia vapor, the lines appear in blue, black, or brown against popular dissertation introduction writer site ca white or clear background see this example. Synonymous with blueline printdiazotypeand dyeline print. A leather bookbinding decorated in a crisscross pattern of parallel diagonal lines forming rows of small diamonds across the surface.

To see examples, try a search on the keyword "diced" in the British Library 's Database of Bookbindings. A library classification schemedeveloped by George Sherman Dickinsonused to catalog and classify printed music, in which composition s are arranged according to five main categories and then by medium, form, and composer. An audiorecording medium developed by the Dictaphone Corporation, consisting of a plastic sleeve that fits around a platen with a needle assembly capable of recording sound from a telephone line or radio frequency by cutting a groove into the sleeve as the platen is rotated see this example.

A single dictabelt can hold recordings of several conversations. Sound quality was better than on belts made by IBM which used a magnetic coating instead of grooves. Edison produced a similar product, the Voicewriter, which cut grooves into a thin, flat disc.

Because the format is obsoletepreservation requires duplication in another medium. The Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia provides online access to the dictabelt recordings of President John F. A single- volume or multivolume reference work containing brief explanatory entries for term s and topic s related to a specific subject or check this out of inquiry, usually arranged alphabetical ly example : Dictionary of Neuropsychology.

The entries in a dictionary are usually shorter than those contained in an encyclopedia on the same subject, but the word http://dvdbestonline.co/creative-writing-ghostwriters-sites-nyc.php is often used in the title s of works that should more appropriately be called encyclopedias example : Dictionary of the Middle Ages in 13 volume s.

See also : biographical dictionary and reverse dictionary. See also : desk dictionary popular dissertation introduction writer site ca pocket dictionary.

See also : lexicographypolyglot dictionaryreverse dictionaryand rhyming dictionary. A type of catalogwidely used in the Best phd essay editor site for school States before the conversion of the card catalog to machine-readable form, in which all the entries mainaddedsubject and cross-reference s are interfiled in a single alphabetic sequence, as opposed to a catalog divided into separate sections by type of Schwindel, esl critical analysis essay writing websites canada haben authortitlesubject.

Compare with classified catalog. A free-standing piece of display furniture usually made of wood, at least waist-high with a sloping top and a book stopused in libraries to display an open dictionary or other large reference work. A dictionary stand is narrower than an atlas case and may contain shelves for storing other volume s. Small revolving table-top models are also available from library supplier s.

To see examples of various models, try a keywords search on the term in Google Images. Fiction and poetry intended primarily to teach the reader a lesson. The category includes cautionary tales and morality tales.

See also : fable and parable. The controversial practice of charging libraries a substantially higher price for periodical subscription s than the amount an individual subscriber is required to pay, which some journal publisher s claim is justified because a library subscription makes the publication available to more reader s, a phenomenon known in the publishing trade as pass-along.

Also refers to the practice in Europe of charging North American subscribers a rate substantially higher than normal, presumably click to see more they can afford to pay more. A work created by four or more persons or corporate bodies in read article no single individual or body can be identified as the primary author.

In librariessuch works are cataloged under the titlewith an added entry for the popular dissertation introduction writer site ca person or link. In AACR2if three or fewer persons or bodies are primarily popular dissertation introduction writer site ca for the work, main entry is under the heading for the first-named author, with added entries for the other principal authors.

Compare with unknown popular dissertation introduction writer site ca. See also : mixed responsibility and shared responsibility. An orderly, popular dissertation introduction writer site ca abridgment or condensation of a written work legal, scientific, historical, or literarybroader in scope than a synopsisusually prepared by a person other than the author of the original. Heading s and subheading s may be added to facilitate reference.

In law, a summary of existing laws, reported cases, and court decisions arranged systematically for quick reference. The earliest digests, treatise s on Roman law compile d by classical Roman jurists, were copied by medieval scribe s in manuscript form, sometimes with gloss es and illumination.

Some popular dissertation introduction writer site ca have been digitized example : International Digest of Health Legislation published by the World Health Organization. Data recorded or transmitted as discrete, discontinuous voltage pulses represented by the binary digits 0 and 1, called bit s.

In digitized texteach alphanumeric character is represented by a specific 8-bit sequence called a byte. The computers used in libraries transmit data in digital format. See also : born digital. A system designed for locating, storing, and providing access to digital materials over the long term.

A digital archive may use a variety of preservation methods to ensure that materials remain usable as technology changes, including emulation and migration.

The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program NDIIPP led by the Library of Congress is an example of a program aimed at preserving digital content. Compare with digital archives. See also : digital repository.

Archival materials that have been converted to machine-readable formatusually for the sake of preservation or to make them more accessible to users. A prime example is American Memorya project undertaken by the Library of Congress to make digital collection s of primary source s on the history and culture of the United States available via the Internet. Also refers to information originally created in electronic format, preserved for its archival value see digital archive. Systems designed to organize and display digital content produced in a variety of media types.

The content popular dissertation introduction writer site ca usually locally owned and controlled, rather than licensed from a third party. Most of the DAM systems offered by the leading library automation vendor s use standards other than the MARC recordsuch as XMLthe Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting OAI-PMHMetadata Encoding and Transmission Standards METSand JPEG The rapid pace of archival and special collections digitization projects has created the need for DAM systems.

Synonymous with digital object management. Compare with electronic resources management. Digital Audio Broadcasting DAB. Radio broadcast ing technology, developed during the s and launched by the BBC inin which analog audio is converted into digital signals for transmission on an assigned channel in the AM or FM frequency range. DAB provides higher quality sound than analog transmission and offers more radio programs over a given spectrum than FM radio, but is not as robust. For this reason, although DAB is used in several countries, particularly in Europe, it has not replaced FM transmission in popularity.

Synonymous with digital radio and high-definition radio. Check this out : electronic book. A collection of library or archival materials converted to machine-readable format for preservation or to provide electronic access example : The Papers of Thomas Jefferson: Article source Editiona project of the University of Virginia Library.

Also, library materials produced in electronic formats, including e-zine s, e-journal s, e-book s, reference work s published online and on CD-ROMbibliographic database s, and other Web -based resources. In the United States, the Digital Library Federation is developing standards and best practices for digital collections and network access. In the meantime, the Popular dissertation introduction writer site ca Information Standards Organization NISO has published A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections Digital Compact Cassette DCC.

A digital magnetic tape audiorecording medium introduced in by Philips and Matsushita as a popular dissertation introduction writer site ca to the click at this page analog audiocassette see this example. In the popular dissertation introduction writer site ca year, SONY introduced the digital MiniDisc MDbut despite their technical superiority neither format seriously challenged the analog audiocassette, which was eventually superseded by the digital compact disc CD.

The active management, enhancement, and preservation of trustworthy digital research data for the duration of its lifecycle. Digital curation entails verification of the integrity of digital data, selection of authoritative digital data for its long-term value, creation of digital object s and associated metadatatransfer of more info objects to reliable digital repositories for secure storageprovision of access to designated users, and periodic re-evaluation of digital format s to avoid obsolescence.

Click here to learn more about digital curation, courtesy of the Digital Curation Centre DCC. A term coined by former Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Telecommunication and Communication Larry Irving, Jr. Public libraries erwГhnt popular best essay editing website for school einfach helping to bridge the gap between information "haves" and "have-nots" with the assistance of substantial grant s from industry leaders such as Bill Gates of Microsoft.

Writer website papers E-rate established by the Telecommunications Act of TCA has helped schools, public librariesand rural health care institutions bridge the gap. Digital Divide Network is a Web site devoted to the issue. Synonymous with information gap. A digital representation of cartographic information in the form of a raster grid of regularly spaced elevation values for ground positions derived primarily from the conversion of contour s on printed topographic map series and from photogrammetry click here to see a DEM of Lake Tahoe.

Resolution depends on the distance between adjacent grid points. Geological Survey publishes 7. DEMs can be combined with other digital data to provide additional visual detail see this example of a digital orthophoto overlaid on a DEM.

Click here to learn more about digital elevation models, courtesy of the USGS. Click here to see a practical application of digital elevation modeling in the conservation of the mountain gorilla. Synonymous with digital terrain model. See also : National Elevation Dataset. An analog image that has been convertedusually by a scanner or digital camera, into a gridded array matrix of small discrete locations called picture elements " pixel s" that hold binary data quantifying the size popular dissertation introduction writer site ca area of the location and the color and brightness spectral intensity of the image at the location.

The data popular dissertation introduction writer site ca which a digital image is comprised can be stored on a computer, manipulated, transmitted electronically, printedreproduced on filmor display ed on a computer monitor or television screen. Digital imaging is a rapidly developing technology. The field within computer science covering all aspects of the capture, storagemanipulation, transmission, and display of images in popular dissertation introduction writer site ca formatincluding digital photograph visit web page, scanningand bitmap ped graphic s.

In librariesimage s of text document s are created for electronic reserve collection s and digital archives. They are also available in full-text bibliographic database s and reference resources. Click here to connect to the digital imaging program the Library of the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Resources for Digital Imaging are also listed on a Web page maintained by Conservation OnLine CoOL. Digital Libraries Initiative DLI.

A multi- agency interdisciplinary research program of the National Science Foundation NSF that provides grant s to facilitate the creation of large knowledge bases, develop the popular dissertation introduction writer site ca technology to access them effectively, and improve their usability in a wide range of contexts.

Click here to see a list of projects funded by DLI Phase A library in which a significant proportion of the resource s are available in machine-readable format as opposed to print or microformaccessible by means of computers. The digital content may be locally held or accessed remotely via computer network s.

For a distributed example, see the Mountain West Digital Library established by the Utah Academic Library Consortium. In libraries, the process of digitization began with the catalogmoved to periodical index es and abstracting service s, then to periodical s and large reference work s, and finally to book publishing. Compare with virtual library. See also : Digital Library FederationDigital Public Library of Americaand National Science Digital Library.

Click to see more : RFID scanner.

Digital Library Federation DLF. A consortium of major libraries and library-related agencies dedicated to promoting the use of electronic technologies to extend collection s and services, DLF is committed to identifying standards and best practices for digital collection s and network accesscoordinating research and development in the use of information technology by libraries, and assisting in the initiation of projects and services that individual libraries lack the means to develop on their own.

Click here to connect to the homepage of the DLF. Digital Library of Information Science and Technology. A file of digital vector representations of cartographic informationspecifically more info and topographic map feature s point s, line s, and area s derived from aerial photograph s or from cartographic source materials using manual or automated digitizing methods see this example.

DLGs can be viewed without any background image or overlaid on orthophotograph s and other images click here to see a DLG of Lake Tahoe. They require much less file space than image data and can be resized without popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of clarity, in contrast to raster datapopular dissertation introduction writer site ca becomes pixilated if enlarged too much.

Large-scaleor, intermediate-scale, and small-scale , DLG data files are available from the U. Geological Survey for various categories of data hydrography, hypsography, transportation, political boundaries, Public Land Survey System data, etc. Click here to learn more about USGS DLGs. Compare with digital raster graphic. A space in a librarydesigned to give patron s access to hardware and software needed to create liverpool essay writer rhetorical esl analysis website mediaincluding videorecording s, sound recording s, podcast s, ebook s, Web site s, digital image s, and animation see this example at the Skokie Public Library in Illinois.

DMLs are often Mac -based. Staff training is required. Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA. Legislation passed by Congress and signed into law in October to prepare the United States for the ratification of international treaties protecting copyright s to intellectual property in digital form, drafted in at a conference of the World Intellectual Property Organization WIPO. The bill was supported by the software and entertainment industries and opposed by the libraryresearchand education communities.

Click here to learn more about the DMCAcourtesy of the Electronic Frontier Foundation EFF. A summary is available from the U. Copyright Office at www. See also : Technology, Education and Copyright Harmonization Act.

In the technical sense, a type of data structure consisting of digital contentpopular dissertation introduction writer site ca unique identifier for the content called a "handle"and other data about the content, for example, rights metadata.

See also : digital asset management and Digital Object Identifier. Digital Object Identifier DOI. A unique code preferred by publisher s in the identification and popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of the content of a digital objectsuch as a journal articleWeb documentor other item of intellectual property.

The DOI consists of two parts: a prefix assigned to each publisher by the administrative DOI agency and a suffix assigned by the publisher that may be any code the publisher chooses.

DOIs and their corresponding URL s are registered in a central DOI directory that functions as a routing system. Click here to learn more about the DOI. A black and white or infrared aerial photograph taken with digital equipment, instead of a conventional film camera, then rectified to eliminate displacement and other image distortions to conform to measurements taken on the ground this example.

A DOP has uniform scale and can be used like a map. DOPs can also be combined in a photomosaic to create a single image of a larger area, or with other digital products such as digital elevation model s DEMs to provide additional detail. Click here to see digital orthophotograph s used in a study of the Waller Creek floodplain in Texas.

Click here to learn more about popular annotated bibliography ghostwriters services australia, courtesy of the U. See also : digital orthophoto quadrangle.

The standard product for the initial national orthoimagery coverage of the United States, the DOQ is a digital orthophotograph at a scale ofcentered on a quarter- quadrangle at 1-meter pixel resolution click here to see a DOQ of Lake Tahoe.

DOQs are cast on the Universal Transverse Mercator UTM projection from see more and white or color infrared digital aerial photograph s. Each DOQ includes an ASCII keyword header containing read article information about TypDiabetes professional report editing site liverpool the image dataincluding photograph ic source type, date taken, software systems used in popular dissertation introduction writer site ca it, and production date of the digital elevation model DEM metadata used in the orthophoto rectification process.

Click here to learn more about USGS DOQs. Synonymous with digital orthographic quadrangle and digital orthophoto quarter-quadrangle DOQQ. Digital Performance Right popular dissertation introduction writer site ca Sound Recordings Act of DPRA.

Broadcast ing is specifically exempted from the DPRA. Click here to read the text of the DPRA. The process of maintaining, in a condition suitable for use, materials produced in digital format s, including preservation of the bit stream and the continued ability to render or display the content represented by the bit stream. The task is compounded by the fact that some digital storage media deteriorate quickly "bit rot"and the digital object is inextricably entwined with its access popular dissertation introduction writer site ca software and hardwarewhich is evolving in a continuous cycle of innovation popular dissertation introduction writer site ca obsolescence.

Also refers to the practice of digitizing materials originally produced in nondigital formats printfilmetc. Click here to learn about the National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program, a collaborative initiative of the Library of Congress.

The Digital Preservation Coalition DPC was established in to address the challenges of preserving digital resources in the UK. Synonymous with e-preservation and electronic preservation. See also : digital archiveLOCKSSNational Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Programand preservation metadata.

Digital Public Library of America. A proposed national digital library for the United States. Currently in planning, DPLA received initial funding from the Alfred P. Robert Darnton, historian and university librarian at Harvard University, has been one of the strongest public voices in support of the concept.

John Palfrey, professor of law at Harvard and faculty co-director of the Berkman Center, chairs the DPLA steering committee. At a plenary meeting in October at the National Archives in Washington, D. The target date for DPLA to go "live" is April Click here to learn more about DPLA. The activities involved in the business of preparing, processing, producing, protecting, and preserving information content in digital form, whether the result is delivered in print or electronic format e-journal popular dissertation introduction writer site ca, e-bookWeb documentetc.

Inthe Pennsylvania State University Libraries formed a partnership with Penn State Press to create an Office of Digital Scholarly Publishing which will use new media technology to advance scholarly communication at Penn State and within the wider academic community. One goal popular dissertation introduction writer site ca the new Office will be to make research publication s available online by moving existing print journal s and monograph s to a digital environment.

For a full treatment of the topicsee The Columbia Guide to Digital Publishing edited by William Kasdorf Columbia University Press: A digital image of a standard- scale topographic quadrangle originally published on paper by the U. Geological Surveyincluding all marginal dataoptically scanned at high resolution or more dots per inch. The image inside the neat line is georeferenced to the surface of the earth, with horizontal positional accuracy and datum matching popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of the source map click here popular dissertation introduction writer site ca see a DRG of Lake Tahoe.

DRGs can popular dissertation introduction writer site ca used as background images on which other digital data is overlaid and as base map s in any GISGPSor graphics software system capable of displaying Geo TIFF images. Http://dvdbestonline.co/popular-home-work-proofreading-site-london.php can also be combined with other digital products, such as digital elevation model http://dvdbestonline.co/do-my-term-paper.php DEMs and digital orthophoto quadrangle s DOQs to provide additional visual detail.

Click here to learn more about USGS DRGs. Compare with digital line graph. See also : raster data. Click at this page services requested and provided over the Internetusually via e-mailinstant messaging " chat "or Web -based submission forms, usually answered by librarian s in the reference department of a librarysometimes by the participants in a collaborative reference system serving popular dissertation introduction writer site ca than one institution.

For an example, see Ask a librarian Synonymous with chat referencee-referenceonline referencereal-time referenceand virtual reference. See also : MARS: Emerging Technologies in Reference Section. Many academic and research libraries are actively engaged in building digital collection popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of popular dissertation introduction writer site ca s, paper s, thesesmediapopular dissertation introduction writer site ca other work s of interest to the institution served, as a means of preserving and disseminating scholarly information.

Usually locally author ed or produced, content can be either born digital or reformat ted. Access is generally unrestricted, in compliance with the Open Archives Initiative OAI protocol for metadata harvestingwhich makes such archives interoperable popular dissertation introduction writer site ca cross-searchable see this example maintained by the University of Texas Libraries.

Click here to learn more about the role of digital repositories in scholarly communicationcourtesy of the Association of Research Libraries ARL. Ownership of information content published and distributed in electronic formatprotected in the United States by copyright law. Digital rights management DRM uses technologies specifically designed to identify, securemanage, track, and audit digital content, ideally in ways that ensure public accesspreserve fair use and right of first saleand protect information producers from uncompensated download ing copyright piracy.

ContentGuard has based its software approach on XrML e X tensible r ights M arkup L anguageoriginally developed at Xerox PARC, which the company hopes will become the open standard for interoperabilitygiving customers a common platform for receiving http://dvdbestonline.co/application-letter-proofreading-websites-liverpool.php under conditions that protect copyright.

Admission essay editor service uk system of hardware and software components and services, designed to distribute and control the rights to intellectual property created or reproduced in digital form for distribution online or via other digital mediain conjunction with corresponding law, policy, and business models.

DRM systems typically use data encryptiondigital watermark s, user plug-in s, and popular dissertation introduction writer site ca methods to prevent content from being distributed in violation of copyright. See also : DRM-free. Unlike the traditional audiobookwhich is an analog popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of a print publicationthe digital talking book is a popular dissertation introduction writer site ca of electronic file s arranged as a multimedia representation of information traditionally imparted in print.

Special playback equipment is required. DTBs enable the target population to receive information as human or synthetic speech, refreshable Brailleor alternative visual display e. A master's thesis or Ph. Most universities require a visit web page or microform copy for archival purposes, but for some hypermedia theses, a print version may not be an accurate representation of the original or even possible.

Preservation dilemmas click to see more by the rapid obsolescence of digital equipment and format s underscore the need for standards. See the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations NDLTD and the Australasian Digital Theses Program ADT. The process of converting data to digital format for processing by a computer. In information system s, digitization usually refers to the conversion of printed text or images photograph s, illustration s, map s, etc.

In telecommunicationdigitization refers to the conversion of continuous analog signals into pulsating digital signals. The Association of Research Libraries ARL has endorsed digitization as an accepted preservation reformat ting option for a range of materials.

See also : book digitizer. A melodrama tic fiction al narrative of adventureromanceand action published in inexpensive paperback edition in the United States during the second half of the 19th century, sold mainly at newsstands for 10 to 25 cents a copy.

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